Iraqis Being Abused by US Personnel

Part 1


“Torture Taxi: On the Trail of the CIA’s Rendition Flights”

11/14/06 Air America... Peter B. Collins Show
INTERVIEW: authors of the new book “Torture Taxi:

— FILED IN GERMANY ON NOVEMBER 14, 2006, Mon Nov 13 00:31 

BCST 8/27/06
9/11 ACCOUNTABILTY Vs. "The Case For Impeachment"


Congressman Chris Shays says Abu Ghraib was a “sex ring”

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Mirrored at:

Tony Blair and Jack Straw lie about torture... but how much?Blair and Straw may be liars, but many people forget that - as experienced lawyers and politicians - they are *exceptional* liars.

BlairWatch have provided a repository of quotes from Tony Blair and Jack Straw on the subject of torture (or, if you prefer, 'rendition') and/or their awareness of this practice:

You will need these leads - and the documents posted below - because we are setting a New Years' Challenge:

Iraqis Being Abused by US Personnel

Part 2 
 Part 3  
Part 4 
Part 5 
Part 6 
Part 7 
Part 8
Part 9 
Legal Docs. http://www.apfn/apfn/POW_legal_doc 

53 Page Prison Abuse Report
24 Page Red Cross Report

Iraqis Abused by U.S. Personnel - Military Documents

Intelligence Interrogation
Legal Documents and punishments

Brig. Gen. Janis Karpinski Met Israeli Interrogator in Iraq

One Woman's Army: The Commanding General of Abu Ghraib Tells Her Story
by Janis Karpinski

Brig. Gen. Janis Karpinski

War Crimes

Crimes Against Humanity Committed by the Bush Admin

2-20-06 Mike Malloy interviews Truthout reporter on Abu Ghraib abuses 

Brig. Gen. Janis Karpinski, former commander of Abu Ghraib prison in Iraq testifies on how the abuse of prisoners in U.S. custody originated at the highest levels (audio).
Panel of Jurists (l. to r.): Adjoa Aiyetoro, Dennis Brutus, Ajamu Sankofa, Ann Wright, and Abdeen Jabara 
International Commission of Inquiry On
Crimes Against Humanity Committed by the Bush Administration
Preliminary Findings Released
Cover Letter [pdf] - 
These are war crimes and crimes against humanity 
Brig. Gen. Janis Karpinski
Fmr. Commander, 800th Military Police Brigade

APFN Radio Your Way

American soldiers abusing and humiliating Iraqis being held at a prison near Baghdad.
Photos of Iraqis Being Abused by US Personnel
Fri Apr 30, 2004 12:35
Photos of Iraqis Being Abused by US Personnel

On 29 April 2004, 60 Minutes II on CBS reported:

Last month, the U.S. Army announced 17 soldiers in Iraq, including a brigadier general, had been removed from duty after charges of mistreating Iraqi prisoners.

But the details of what happened have been kept secret, until now.

It turns out photographs surfaced showing American soldiers abusing and humiliating Iraqis being held at a prison near Baghdad. The Army investigated, and issued a scathing report.

Now, an Army general and her command staff may face the end of long military careers. And six soldiers are facing court martial in Iraq -- and possible prison time.

full article

Former CIA Bureau Chief Bob Baer said: "We went into Iraq to stop things like this from happening, and indeed, here they are happening under our tutelage."

Brig. Gen. Mark Kimmitt, deputy director of coalition operations in Iraq, admitted that this was not an isolated series of incidents: “I'd like to sit here and say that these are the only prisoner abuse cases that we're aware of, but we know that there have been some other ones since we've been here in Iraq,”




The Abu Ghraib Prison Photos

It’s the "liberation" of the Iraqi people

 These are just some of the photos that led to an investigation into conditions at the Abu Ghraib prison, now run by the occupation authorities, as revealed in a shocking report broadcast by CBS on 60 Minutes II.

MORE disgusting photos AT:

(CBS) Last month, the U.S. Army announced 17 soldiers in Iraq, including a brigadier general, had been removed from duty after charges of mistreating Iraqi prisoners.

But the details of what happened have been kept secret, until now.

It turns out photographs surfaced showing American soldiers abusing and humiliating Iraqis being held at a prison near Baghdad. The Army investigated, and issued a scathing report.

Now, an Army general and her command staff may face the end of long military careers. And six soldiers are facing court martial in Iraq -- and possible prison time.
Correspondent Dan Rather talks to one of those soldiers. And, for the first time, 60 Minutes II will show some of the pictures that led to the Army investigation.

According to the U.S. Army, one Iraqi prisoner was told to stand on a box with his head covered, wires attached to his hands. He was told that if he fell off the box, he would be electrocuted.

It was this picture, and dozens of others, that prompted an investigation by the U.S. Army. On Tuesday, 60 Minutes II asked Brig. Gen. Mark Kimmitt, deputy director of coalition operations in Iraq, what went wrong.

“Frankly, I think all of us are disappointed by the actions of the few,” says Kimmitt. “Every day, we love our soldiers, but frankly, some days we're not always proud of our soldiers."

For decades under Saddam Hussein, many prisoners who were taken to the Abu Ghraib prison never came out. It was the centerpiece of Saddam’s empire of fear, and those prisoners who did make it out told nightmarish tales of torture beyond imagining – and executions without reason.

60 Minutes II talked about the prison and shared pictures of what Americans did there with two men who have extensive interrogation experience: Former Marine Lt. Col. Bill Cowan and former CIA Bureau Chief Bob Baer.

"I visited Abu Ghraib a couple of days after it was liberated. It was the most awful sight I've ever seen. I said, ‘If there's ever a reason to get rid of Saddam Hussein, it's because of Abu Ghraib,'” says Baer. “There were bodies that were eaten by dogs, torture. You know, electrodes coming out of the walls. It was an awful place."

"We went into Iraq to stop things like this from happening, and indeed, here they are happening under our tutelage,” says Cowan.

It was American soldiers serving as military police at Abu Ghraib who took these pictures. The investigation started when one soldier got them from a friend, and gave them to his commanders. 60 Minutes II has a dozen of these pictures, and there are many more – pictures that show Americans, men and women in military uniforms, posing with naked Iraqi prisoners.

There are shots of the prisoners stacked in a pyramid, one with a slur written on his skin in English.

In some, the male prisoners are positioned to simulate sex with each other. And in most of the pictures, the Americans are laughing, posing, pointing, or giving the camera a thumbs-up.

60 Minutes II was only able to contact one of the soldiers facing charges. But the Army says they are all in Iraq, awaiting court martial.

"What can the Army say specifically to Iraqis and others who are going to see this and take it personally," Rather asked Kimmitt, in an interview conducted by satellite from Baghdad.

"The first thing I’d say is we’re appalled as well. These are our fellow soldiers. These are the people we work with every day, and they represent us. They wear the same uniform as us, and they let their fellow soldiers down,” says Kimmitt.

“Our soldiers could be taken prisoner as well. And we expect our soldiers to be treated well by the adversary, by the enemy. And if we can't hold ourselves up as an example of how to treat people with dignity and respect … We can't ask that other nations to that to our soldiers as well."

“So what would I tell the people of Iraq? This is wrong. This is reprehensible. But this is not representative of the 150,000 soldiers that are over here,” adds Kimmitt. “I'd say the same thing to the American people... Don't judge your army based on the actions of a few."

One of the soldiers facing court martial is Army Reserve Staff Sgt. Chip Frederick.

Frederick is charged with maltreatment for allegedly participating in and setting up a photo, and for posing in a photograph by sitting on top of a detainee. He is charged with an indecent act for observing one scene. He is also charged with assault for allegedly striking detainees – and ordering detainees to strike each other.

60 Minutes II talked with him by phone from Baghdad, where he is awaiting court martial.

Frederick told us he will plead not guilty, claiming the way the Army was running the prison led to the abuse of prisoners.

“We had no support, no training whatsoever. And I kept asking my chain of command for certain rules and regulations,” says Frederick. “And it just wasn't happening."

Six months before he faced a court martial, Frederick sent home a video diary of his trip across the country. Frederick, a reservist, said he was proud to serve in Iraq. He seemed particularly well-suited for the job at Abu Ghraib. He’s a corrections officer at a Virginia prison, whose warden described Frederick to us as “one of the best.”

Frederick says Americans came into the prison: “We had military intelligence, we had all kinds of other government agencies, FBI, CIA ... All those that I didn't even know or recognize."

Frederick's letters and email messages home also offer clues to problems at the prison. He wrote that he was helping the interrogators:

"Military intelligence has encouraged and told us 'Great job.' "

"They usually don't allow others to watch them interrogate. But since they like the way I run the prison, they have made an exception."

"We help getting them to talk with the way we handle them. ... We've had a very high rate with our style of getting them to break. They usually end up breaking within hours."

According to the Army’s own investigation, that’s what was happening. The Army found that interrogators asked reservists working in the prison to prepare the Iraqi detainees, physically and mentally, for questioning.

What, if any actions, are being taken against the interrogators?

"I hope the investigation is including not only the people who committed the crimes, but some of the people that might have encouraged these crimes as well,” says Kimmitt. “Because they certainly share some level of responsibility as well."

But so far, none of the interrogators at Abu Ghraib are facing criminal charges. In fact, a number of them are civilians, and military law doesn’t apply to them.

One of the civilian interrogators at Abu Ghraib was questioned by the Army, and he told investigators he had "broken several tables during interrogations, unintentionally," while trying to "fear up" prisoners. He denied hurting anyone.

In our phone conversation, 60 Minutes II asked Frederick whether he had seen any prisoners beaten.

“I saw things. We had to use force sometimes to get the inmates to cooperate, just like our rules of engagement said,” says Frederick. “We learned a little bit of Arabic, basic commands. And they didn't want to listen, so sometimes, you would just give them a little nudge or something like that just to get them to cooperate so we could get the mission accomplished."

Attorney Gary Myers and a judge advocate in Iraq are defending Frederick. They say he should never have been charged, because of the failure of his commanders to provide proper training and standards.

"The elixir of power, the elixir of believing that you're helping the CIA, for God's sake, when you're from a small town in Virginia, that's intoxicating,” says Myers. “And so, good guys sometimes do things believing that they are being of assistance and helping a just cause. ... And helping people they view as important."

Frederick says he didn't see a copy of the Geneva Convention rules for handling prisoners of war until after he was charged.

The Army investigation confirms that soldiers at Abu Ghraib were not trained at all in Geneva Convention rules. And most were reservists, part-time soldiers who didn't get the kind of specialized prisoner of war training given to regular Army members.

Frederick also says there were far too few soldiers there for the number of prisoners: “There was, when I left, there was over 900. And there was only five soldiers, plus two non-commissioned officers, in charge for those 900 -- over 900 inmates."

Rather asked Kimmitt about understaffing. "That doesn't condone individual acts of criminal behavior no matter how tired we are. No matter how stretched we are, that doesn't give us license and it doesn't give us the authority to break the law,” says Kimmitt.

“That may have been a contributing factor, but at the end of the day, this is probably more about leadership, supervision, setting standards, abiding by the Army values and understanding what's right, and having the guts to say what's right.”

Brig. Gen. Janice Karpinsky ran Abu Ghraib for the Army. She was also in charge of three other Army prison facilities that housed thousands of Iraqi inmates.

The Army investigation determined that her lack of leadership and clear standards led to problems system wide. Karpinski talked with 60 Minutes’ Steve Kroft last October at Abu Ghraib, before any of this came out.

"This is international standards,” said Karpinski. “It's the best care available in a prison facility."

But the Army investigation found serious problems behind the scenes. The Army has photographs that show a detainee with wires attached to his genitals. Another shows a dog attacking an Iraqi prisoner. Frederick said that dogs were “used for intimidation factors.”

Part of the Army's own investigation is a statement from an Iraqi detainee who charges a translator - hired to work at the prison - with raping a male juvenile prisoner: "They covered all the doors with sheets. I heard the screaming. ...and the female soldier was taking pictures."

There is also a picture of an Iraqi man who appears to be dead -- and badly beaten.

"It's reprehensible that anybody would be taking a picture of that situation,” says Kimmitt.

But what about the situation itself?

“I don't know the facts surrounding what caused the bruising and the bleeding,” says Kimmitt. “If that is also one of the charges being brought against the soldiers, that too is absolutely unacceptable and completely outside of what we expect of our soldiers and our guards at the prisons."

Is there any indication that similar actions may have happened at other prisons? “I'd like to sit here and say that these are the only prisoner abuse cases that we're aware of, but we know that there have been some other ones since we've been here in Iraq,” says Kimmitt.

When Saddam ran Abu Ghraib prison, Iraqis were too afraid to come ask for information on their family members.

When 60 Minutes II was there last month, hundreds had gathered outside the gates, worried about what is going on inside.

"We will be paid back for this. These people at some point will be let out,” says Cowan. “Their families are gonna know. Their friends are gonna know."

This is a hard story to have to tell when Americans are fighting and dying in Iraq. And for Cowan, it’s a personal issue. His son is an infantry soldier serving in Iraq for the last four months.

Rather asked Cowan what he would say to "that person who is sitting in their living room and saying, ‘I wish they wouldn't do this. It's undermining our troops and they shouldn't do it.’"

"If we don't tell this story, these kinds of things will continue. And we'll end up getting paid back 100 or 1,000 times over,” says Cowan. “Americans want to be proud of each and everything that our servicemen and women do in Iraq. We wanna be proud. We know they're working hard. None of us, now, later, before or during this conflict, should wanna let incidents like this just pass."

Kimmitt says the Army will not let what happened at Abu Ghraib just pass. What does he think is the most important thing for Americans to know about what has happened?

"I think two things. No. 1, this is a small minority of the military, and No. 2, they need to understand that is not the Army,” says Kimmitt. “The Army is a values-based organization. We live by our values. Some of our soldiers every day die by our values, and these acts that you see in these pictures may reflect the actions of individuals, but by God, it doesn't reflect my army."

Two weeks ago, 60 Minutes II received an appeal from the Defense Department, and eventually from the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, Gen. Richard Myers, to delay this broadcast -- given the danger and tension on the ground in Iraq.

60 Minutes II decided to honor that request, while pressing for the Defense Department to add its perspective to the incidents at Abu Ghraib prison. This week, with the photos beginning to circulate elsewhere, and with other journalists about to publish their versions of the story, the Defense Department agreed to cooperate in our report.


CIA accused of link to Iraq prison torture
Mon May 3, 2004 03:10

CIA accused of link to Iraq prison torture

The US Army Reserve general whose soldiers were photographed as they abused Iraqi prisoners said she suspected the reservists were acting with the encouragement of military intelligence units that ran the special cell block used for interrogation and that CIA employees often joined in the interrogations. The magazine The New Yorker says in its latest issue that military police at the prison were urged by officers and CIA agents to "set physical and mental conditions for favourable interrogation of witnesses". According to the magazine, the army report offered accounts of gruesome abuse that included the sexual assault of an Iraqi detainee with a chemical light stick or broomstick.

Sydney Morning Herald [Australia], 3 May 2004 click for article

CIA accused of link to Iraq prison torture
By Philip Shenon in Washington
May 3, 2004

A US Army Reserve general whose soldiers were photographed as they abused Iraqi prisoners said she knew nothing about the abuse until weeks after it occurred and that she was "sickened" by the pictures.

Brigadier-General Janis Karpinski said she suspected the reservists were acting with the encouragement of military intelligence units that ran the special cell block used for interrogation and that CIA employees often joined in the interrogations.

General Karpinski's allegations are supported by a still-classified US Army report on prison conditions in Iraq documenting many of the worst abuses at the Abu Ghraib prison, west of Baghdad, including the sexual humiliation of prisoners.

The magazine The New Yorker says in its latest issue that the report, by Major-General Antonio Taguba, found that military police at the prison were urged by officers and CIA agents to "set physical and mental conditions for favourable interrogation of witnesses".

According to the magazine, the army report offered accounts of gruesome abuse that included the sexual assault of an Iraqi detainee with a chemical light stick or broomstick.
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In a phone interview in which she offered her first public comments about the episode, General Karpinski, who is still the commanding officer of the 800th Military Police Brigade, said the special high-security cell block at Abu Ghraib had been under the direct control of army intelligence officers, not the reservists under her command.

A diary by a soldier, Sergeant Ivan Frederick, has added further fuel to the furore, painting a nightmarish picture of overworked, undertrained guards coping with hostile Iraqi prisoners and using tactics that flagrantly violate international rules for treatment of detainees.

A disturbing repeated assertion in the diary is that the abuse was encouraged by interrogators from military intelligence and the army's Criminal Investigation Division. Both are under intense pressure to help stop attacks on US troops.

But no intelligence or CID personnel are among the 17 people whom the army has charged or named as being under investigation. The diary - mailed to the US - is replete with dates, names and grisly details and it accords with complaints lodged for months by the human rights group Amnesty International, which has called for a "fully independent, impartial and public investigation" of the treatment of prisoners in Iraq.

The scandal has expanded to include British soldiers who are also alleged to have abused Iraqi prisoners. Pictures of their misconduct were published in London's Daily Mirror newspaper.

Six junior non-commissioned officers serving with the Queen's Lancashire Regiment are being questioned over claims that they abused Iraqi civilians last northern summer. They are expected to be formally arrested within days.

They face court martial and may be imprisoned if found guilty of any assault charges.

Britain's Prime Minister, Tony Blair, said any abuse was "completely and totally unacceptable".

Doubts have been raised about the authenticity of the latest photographs, but the editor of the Daily Mirror, Piers Morgan, said he was "completely satisfied with the veracity of the photographs", adding: "We went to great lengths to check them out."

However, the BBC's defence correspondent quoted sources as saying aspects of the photographs were extremely suspicious. They said the type of rifle and the floppy hats pictured were not used by troops in Iraq, and the type of truck shown in the background had not been deployed there.

The New York Times; The Telegraph, London; The Baltimore Sun; Reuters

Shock new details of torture by US troops in Iraq

Chilling new evidence of the torture and sexual abuse of Iraqi prisoners by American soldiers emerged last night in a secret report accusing the US army leadership of failings at the highest levels. Detainees were subjected to 'sadistic, blatant and wanton criminal abuses', according to a military investigation suggesting that last week's photographs of US soldiers humiliating their naked captives may only have been the tip of the iceberg.

The Observer [UK], 2 May 2004 click for article,6903,1208002,00.html

No soldiers charged despite 7 Iraqi deaths in UK custody

Amid the furore caused by yesterday's publication of photographs showing British troops abusing Iraqi prisoners were claims by the Ministry of Defence and General Sir Michael Jackson, the Chief of the General Staff, that the photographs were of an isolated incident caused by the "ill discipline of a few soldiers". But it is a year and two days since Ather Karen al-Mowafakia died in British custody in Basra. During the next five months another six men died while in the custody of British soldiers.

The Independent [UK], 2 May 2004 click for article



Caroline Drees
Iraq Prisoners Faced 'Sadistic' Abuses-Magazine
Sun May 2, 2004 16:21

Iraq Prisoners Faced 'Sadistic' Abuses-Magazine
Sat May 1, 4:30 PM ET
By Caroline Drees

WASHINGTON (Reuters) - Iraqi prisoners faced numerous "sadistic, blatant and wanton criminal abuses" by U.S. soldiers, including sodomy and beatings, according to a U.S. Army report quoted by the New Yorker magazine.

Results 1 - 10 of about 390 for REPORT Abu Ghraib prison outside Baghdad.

The New Yorker said it had obtained a 53-page, internal U.S. military report into alleged abuses at the notorious Abu Ghraib prison outside Baghdad. In an article posted on its Web site on Saturday, the magazine said the report had been authorized by Lt. Gen. Ricardo Sanchez, the top U.S. officer in Iraq (news - web sites), and was completed in February.

The May 10 issue of the magazine goes on sale on Monday.

The army report listed abuses such as "breaking chemical lights and pouring the phosphoric liquid on detainees; ... beating detainees with a broom handle and a chair; threatening male detainees with rape; allowing a military police guard to stitch the wound of a detainee who was injured after being slammed against the wall in his cell; sodomizing a detainee with a chemical light and perhaps a broom stick."

The report, written by Maj. Gen. Antonio Taguba, said evidence to support the allegations included "detailed witness statements and the discovery of extremely graphic photographic evidence."

A senior Pentagon (news - web sites) official said he had seen no allegations of rape or the use of chemicals against prisoners in Iraq, but said abuse of prisoners was "despicable and inexcusable."

News of the military report comes days after photographs showing abuse by U.S. troops of Iraqi prisoners were published and broadcast around the globe.

The photos showed U.S. troops smiling, posing, laughing or giving the thumbs-up sign as naked, male Iraqi prisoners were stacked in a pyramid or positioned to simulate sex acts with one another.

President Bush (news - web sites) said on Friday he was deeply disgusted by the abuse but said only a "few people" were to blame. He defended the conduct of the U.S. occupation forces as the White House scrambled to head off a backlash in Iraq and across the Arab world.

A British newspaper also published pictures showing British soldiers apparently urinating on a shackled Iraqi prisoner of war. Prime Minister Tony Blair (news - web sites) said on Saturday that abuse of Iraqi prisoners was "completely and totally unacceptable."


Pentagon spokesman Bryan Whitman declined to comment on the allegations in the New Yorker, but stressed that "we take all reports of detainee abuse seriously and all allegations are thoroughly investigated."

He said that when incidents of abuse first came to light earlier this year, the army immediately ordered an investigation, and Sanchez ordered a separate probe to make sure that such incidents were not widespread throughout the military detention system in Iraq.

U.S. officials said on Thursday that the military is weighing disciplinary action against the Army general who was in charge of the Abu Ghraib prison, a center of torture and executions under toppled President Saddam Hussein (news - web sites)'s government.

The U.S. military now holds several thousand prisoners at Abu Ghraib, most of them rounded up on suspicion of carrying out attacks against U.S.-led forces.

The U.S. military announced on March 20 it had brought criminal charges against six soldiers with the 800th Military Police Brigade, which could lead to courts-martial. The charges, stemming from a probe launched in January, relate to accusations of abuses carried out in November and December 2003 on around 20 detainees at the prison.

The charges included indecent acts with another person, maltreatment, battery, dereliction of duty and aggravated assault. (Additional reporting by Charles Aldinger)
Abuses were ordered by military: US soldier's charge





American troops caught torturing Iraqi POW's
Fri Apr 30, 2004 11:47

American troops caught torturing Iraqi POW's
posted by Ed209 on Thursday April 29 2004 @ 08:05AM PDT

G.I.'s Are Accused of Abusing Iraqi Captives By JAMES RISEN

Published: April 29, 2004

American soldiers at a prison outside Baghdad have been accused of forcing Iraqi prisoners into acts of sexual humiliation and other abuses in order to make them talk, according to officials and others familiar with the charges.

The charges, first announced by the military in March, were documented by photographs taken by guards inside the prison, but were not described in detail until some of the pictures were made public.

Some of the photographs, and descriptions of others, were broadcast Wednesday night by the CBS News program "60 Minutes II" and were verified by military officials.

Of the six people reported in March to be facing preliminary charges, three have been recommended for court martial trials, having completed the military equivalent of a grand jury proceeding, a senior Pentagon official said late Wednesday. The decision on convening courts martial is now up to Lt. Gen. Ricardo S. Sanchez, the senior American commander in Iraq.

The other grand jury hearings, called Article 32 proceedings under military law, have been delayed at the request of defense counsel.

The CBS News program reported that poorly trained American reservists were forcing Iraqis to conduct simulated sexual acts, among other things, in order to break down their will before they were turned over to others for interrogation.

Charges against the soldiers included assault, cruelty, indecent acts and maltreatment of detainees, Pentagon officials have previously said.

Gary Myers, the lawyer for one of the enlisted men charged, said in an interview that the military had treated the six soldiers as scapegoats and had failed to address adequately the responsibilities of senior commanders and intelligence personnel involved in the interrogations.

Top officers at the prison, including a brigadier general, face administrative review, officials said. They are no longer stationed at the prison, Abu Ghraib near Baghdad.

Mr. Myers said the accused men, all from an Army Reserve military police unit, had been told to soften up the prisoners by more senior American interrogators, some of whom they believe were intelligence officials and outside contractors.

"This case involves a monumental failure of leadership, where lower-level enlisted people are being scapegoated," Mr. Myers said. "The real story is not in these six young enlisted people. The real story is the manner in which the intelligence community forced them into this position."

Mr. Myers represents Staff Sgt. Chip Frederick of the Army Reserve, who has been charged in the case and who was interviewed by "60 Minutes II." He complained of a lack of training and admitted that dogs had been used to intimidate prisoners.

In one photograph obtained by the program, naked Iraq prisoners are stacked in a human pyramid, one with a slur written on his skin in English. In another, a prisoner stands on a box, his head covered, wires attached to his body. The program said that according to the United States Army, he had been told that if he fell off the box, he would be electrocuted. Other photographs show male prisoners positioned to simulate sex with each other.

"The pictures show Americans, men and women, in military uniforms, posing with naked Iraqi prisoners," states a transcript of the program's script, made available Wednesday night. "And in most of the pictures, the Americans are laughing, posing, pointing or giving the camera a thumbs-up."

The CBS News program said the Army also had photographs showing a detainee with wires attached to his genitals and another showing a dog attacking an Iraqi prisoner. The program also reported that the Army's investigation of the case included a statement from an Iraqi detainee who charges that a translator hired to work at the prison raped a male juvenile prisoner.

At the Abu Ghraib prison, where the photographs were taken, American forces have been holding hundreds of Iraqis since the American-led invasion of Iraq. The prison is infamous as a site where Saddam Hussein tortured prisoners while he was in power.

In March, the United States military first announced that the six enlisted soldiers from the 800th Military Police Brigade were being charged in the case, but few details were released.

An official confirmed that Brig. Gen. Janis Karpinski, who ran the prison, had been reassigned.

Brig. Gen. Mark Kimmitt, chief spokesman for the American military command in Baghdad, told reporters that the investigation of Abu Ghraib prison began in January after a soldier came forward.

"I'm not going to stand up here and make excuses for those soldiers," General Kimmitt said. He said that "if what they did is proven in a court of law, that is incompatible with the values we stand for as a professional military force, and it's values that we don't stand for as human beings."

He added: "This does not reflect the vast majority of coalition soldiers, vast majority of American soldiers that are operating out of Abu Ghraib prison."


US-Coalition War Against Saddam Hussein 2003

Interesting Documents, Articles, Testimony and Reports for Iraq

For Those Interested in Iraq POW-MIA Bracelets - Info!

POWs and Captives - POW Rights According to the Qur'an

Rights of POWs According to the Qur'an

With recent news disclosures that American captives and POWs would be treated in accordance to the rights of Prisoners of War according to the Qur'an, the following should be of interest.

NOTE: This article is based on a talk by Syed Abul A'la Maudoodi and has been translated into English by Prof Ahmed Said Khan and Prof Khurshid Ahmad. It was published by the Islamic Foundation, UK.

"Rights Of Enemies In War

Before the advent of Islam the world was ignorant of the concept of humane and decent rules of war. The West first began to develop this concept through the works of the seventeenth century thinker, Grotius. But the nineteenth century. Prior to this all forms of barbarism and savagery were perpetrated in war, and the rights of those in a war were not even recognized, let alone respected.

The 'laws' which were framed in this field during the nineteenth century or over the following period up to the present day cannot be called agreements, because nations do not regard them as bindings unless, of civilized laws imply that if our enemies respect them, we shall also respect them but if they ignore them then we shall ignore them, too. Arrangements which depend on mutual acceptability cannot be called 'laws'. This is the reason why so-called 'international law' has been constantly flouted and ignored.

Law Of War And Peace In Islam

The rules which have been framed by Islam to make war civilized and humane are in the nature of law, because they are the injunctions of Allah and His prophet (blessings of Allah and peace be upon him) which are followed by Muslims in all circumstances, irrespective of the behavior of the enemy. It would be instructive to research into how well the West has adopted the laws of war given by Islam fourteen hundred years ago; and, even after their adoption, how well the West has managed to attain those heights of civilized and human warfare behaviour which Muslims have reached through the blessings of Islam.

Western writers have often asserted that the Prophet (blessings of Allah and peace be upon him) borrowed his teachings from the Jews and the Christians. It is sufficient here to recommend the reader to refer to the Bible* so that he can see what methods of ware are recommended by the sacred Book of these Western claimants to civilization and culture.

We have examined in some detail the basic human rights that Islam has conferred on man. Let us now look at the rights and obligations Islam recognizes for any enemy.

The Rights Of Non-Combatants

Islam has drawn a clear distinction between combatants and non-combatants in any enemy country. As far as the non-combatant population it concerned ? women, children, the old and the infirm ? the instructions of the Prophet are as follows: "Do not kill any old person, any child or any woman" (AbuDawood). "Do not kill the monks in monasteries" and "Do not kill the people who are sitting in places of worship" (Musnad of Ibn Hanbal).

During a war, the prophet saw the corpse of a woman lying on the ground and observed: "She was not fighting. How then came she to be killed?" From this statement of the Prophet the exegetists and jurists have drawn the principle that those who are non-combatants should not be killed during or after a war.

The Rights Of Combatants

Now let us see what rights Islam has conferred on the combatants.

1. Torture by fire

In the Hadith there is a saying of the Prophet that: "Punishment by fire does not behoove anyone except the Master of the Fire" (AbuDawood). The injunction deduced from this saying is that the adversary should not be burnt alive.

2. Protection of the wounded

"Do not attack a wounded person" said the Prophet. This means that wounded soldiers who are not fit to fight, nor actually fighting, should not be attacked.

"Do not attack a wounded person" said the Prophet. This means that wounded soldiers who are not fit to fight, nor actually fighting, should not be attacked.

3. Prisoners of war should not be slain

"No prisoner should be put to the sword" ? a very clear and unequivocal instruction given by the Prophet.

4. No-one should be tied to be killed

"The Prophet has prohibited the killing of anyone who is tied or is in captivity."

5. No looting and destruction in the enemy's country

Muslims have been instructed by the Prophet not to pillage or plunder or destroy residential areas, nor harm the property of anyone not fighting. It has been narrated in the Hadith: "The Prophet has prohibited the Believers from loot and plunder" (Bukhari, AbuDawood). His injunction is: "The loot is no more lawful than the carrion" (AbuDawood). AbuBakr Siddeeq used to tell soldiers on their way to war: "Do not destroy the villages and towns, do not spoil the cultivated fields and gardens, and do not slaughter the cattle."

Booty of war from the battleground is altogether different. It consists of the wealth, provisions and equipment captured from the camps and military headquarters of the combatant armies and may legitimately be appropriated.

6. Sanctity of property

Muslims have been prohibited from taking anything from the general public of a conquered country without paying for it. If the Muslim army occupies an area of the enemy country, it does not have the right to use the things belonging to the people without their consent. If the army needs anything, it should purchase it from the local population or should obtain permission from the owners. AbuBakr Siddeeq used to tell Muslim armies being dispatched to the battle-from that they should not even use the milk of the cattle without the permission of the owners.

7. Sanctity of a dead body

Islam has categorically prohibited its followers from mutilating the corpses of their enemies, as was practised in Arabia before the advent of Islam. It is said in the Hadith: "The Prophet has prohibited us from mutilating the corpses of the enemies" (Bukhari, AbuDawood). The occasion on which this order was given is highly instructive. In the battle of Uhud the disbelievers mutilated the bodies of the Muslims who had fallen on the battlefield by cutting off their ears and noses and threading them together to put round their necks as trophies of war. The stomach of Hamza, the uncle of the Prophet, was ripped open by the Quraysh and his liver was taken out and chewed by Hinda, the wife of AbuSufyan, the leader of the Makkan army. The Muslims were naturally enraged by this horrible sight. But the Prophet asked his followers not to mete out similar treatment to the dead bodies of the enemies.

This great example of forbearance and restraint should be sufficient to convince any reasonable man that Islam really is the religion sent down by the Creator of the universe; if Islam allowed human emotions free rein, this horrible sight on the battlefield of Uhud would have provoked the Prophet to order his followers to mutilate the bodies of their enemy in the same manner.

8. Return of corpses of the enemy

In the battle of Ahzab a renowned enemy warrior was killed and his body fell into the trench which the Muslims had dug for the defence of Madina. The unbelievers presented ten thousand Dinars to the Prophet and requested that the dead body of their fallen warrior be handed over to them. The Prophet replied: "I do not sell dead bodies. You can take away the corpse of your fallen comrade."

9. Prohibition of breach of treaties

Islam has strictly prohibited treachery. One of the instructions that the Prophet used to give to Muslim warrior when sending them to the battlefront was: "Do not be guilty of breach of faith. "This order has been repeated in the Holy Qur’an and the Hadith again and again. there is a famous incident in the peace treaty of Hudaybiya when, after the settlement of the terms of the treaty, AbuJandal, the son of the emissary of the unbelievers who had negotiated the treaty with the Muslims, came bound and blood-stained to the Muslim camp crying for help. The Prophet told him: "Since the terms of the treaty have been settled, we are not in a position to help you. You should go back with your father. God will provide you with some other opportunity to escape this persecution."

The entire Muslim army was deeply touched and grieved at the plight of AbuJandal and many of them were moved to tears. But when the Prophet declared "we cannot break the agreement," not a single person came forward to help the unfortunate prisoner; so the unbelievers forcibly dragged him back to Makkah. This is an unparalleled example of the observance of the terms of agreement by Muslims; Islamic history can show many similar examples.

10. Rules about declaration of war

It has been laid down in the Holy Qur’an: "If you apprehend breach of treaty from a people, then openly throw the treaty at their faces" (8:58). In this verse, Muslims have been prohibited from opening hostilities against their enemies without properly declaring war against them, unless, of course, the adversary has already started the aggression. Present-day 'international law' has also laid down that hostilities should not be started without declaration of war, but since this is a man-made rule, it is often disregarded. Muslim laws, on the other hand, have been framed by Allah and may not be disregarded.

This article is based on a talk by Syed Abul A'la Maudoodi and has been translated
into English by Prof Ahmed Said Khan and Prof Khurshid Ahmad. It was published by the Islamic Foundation, UK."



Herr Teufel
Pictures from Iraq
Fri Apr 30, 2004 11:02

I must warn everyone who looks at link of the graphic nature of many of the pictures.


Seymour Hersh
Abuses were ordered by military: US soldier's charge
Sun May 2, 2004 15:02

Abuses were ordered by military: US soldier's charge

BAGHDAD: As US and British leaders sought to control the damage over the mistreatment of Iraqi prisoners by their troops, one of the six US policemen accused of humiliating the prisoners was quoted in his personal letters and private journal as detailing the abuse and saying military intelligence had ordered it.

Staff Sergeant Ivan Frederick wrote home in January that he had "questioned some of the things" he saw inside the prison, but that "the answer I got was, 'This is how military intelligence wants it done'", according to Seymour Hersh, investigative reporter for The New Yorker.

According to his letter quoted by Hersh, military intelligence officers had congratulated Frederick and other soldiers on the "great job" done with prisoners because "they were now getting positive results and information".

The Guardian newspaper in Britain also reported Saturday it had reviewed a journal Frederick began keeping in January after an investigation was launched into the abuse of prisoners.

"The journals... detail the conditions of the prisoners, apparent torture and the death of one inmate after interrogation," the newspaper said.

According to Frederick's journal quoted in the Guardian, "prisoners were forced to live in damp cool cells" and those placed in isolation cells were left there with "little or no clothes, no toilet or running water, no ventilation or window for as much as three days."

Frederick writes in his journal that he tried to raise the issue with his superior who told him: "Don't worry about it".

The prison scandal broke out Wednesday, after CBS's "60 Minutes II" program broadcast a picture showing a hooded prisoner standing on a box with wires attached to his hands.

He had been told he would be electrocuted if he fell off, the report said.

Other pictures showed prisoners lying on each other and being mercilessly beaten up by soldiers, with others pointing and laughing.

Six US military police including Brigadier General Janis Karpinski, in charge of US-run prisons in Iraq, were charged in March with conspiracy, dereliction of duty, cruelty, maltreatment, assault and indecent acts against up to 20 prisoners at the jail last November and December. They could face court martial.

President George W. Bush said Friday that he shared "a deep disgust that those prisoners were treated the way they were treated." British Prime Minister Tony Blair was forced to voice contempt late Friday for what appeared to be mistreatment by his own troops, one of whom was pictured urinating on an Iraqi detainee and beating him with rifle butts.

According to the Saturday edition of the Daily Mirror which ran the images, the prisoner was allegedly threatened with execution during an eight-hour ordeal which left him bleeding and vomiting, with a broken jaw and smashed teeth.

The newspaper, the strongest voice of opposition to the US-led Iraq war, said it was given the pictures by serving soldiers from the Queen's Lancashire Regiment, who were horrified by the acts depicted.

"I am aware of the allegations which have been made today of the abuse of prisoners by British soldiers in Iraq," said Britain's most senior army officer, General Sir Michael Jackson.-AFP


US spies 'urged abuse' of prisoners
The Australian, Australia - 2 hours ago
... Investigative reporter Seymour Hersh in The New Yorker magazine said a leaked Pentagon report by Major-General Antonio Taguba, completed in February, found ...

US spies 'urged abuse' of prisoners
BY Roy Eccleston, Washington correspondent, and John Kerin
May 03, 2004

THE scandal over the US military's abuse of Iraqi prisoners at a notorious Baghdad prison is deepening, with new claims the possible war crimes were encouraged by American intelligence officers wanting inmates "softened up" for interrogation.

A London newspaper has also broadened the abuse allegations to British troops. The Daily Mirror published photographs at the weekend of what it said was a tortured Iraqi man, after receiving details of the alleged eight-hour beating from two British soldiers.

The claim that the "sadistic, blatant and wanton criminal abuses" by at least six US military police were actively encouraged by intelligence officers came in a confidential military report leaked to The New Yorker magazine.

The magazine also reported that when one Iraqi prisoner was so stressed by questioning – possibly by CIA officers – that he died, his body was packed in ice for a day and then taken from the jail with a mock intravenous drip in his arm to disguise his death.

Army Reserve general Janis Karpinski, who has been stood down over the allegations, told The New York Times on Sunday that she also believed the brutal behaviour had been encouraged by intelligence officers, who were now being protected. "We're disposable," said General Karpinski, who had been in charge of military prisons in Iraq, referring to the reservist military police (MPs) allegedly involved.

"Why would they want the active-duty people to take the blame? They want to put this on the MPs and hope that this thing goes away. Well, it's not going to go away."

The Arab world is outraged at photographs broadcast first on the US current affairs program Sixty Minutes II last week, showing the humiliation of naked Iraqi prisoners at one of the prisons most notorious for torture during the reign of Saddam Hussein.

While General Karpinski said the pictures sickened her when she saw them, and that those responsible were "bad people", she also added that the Abu Ghraib prison cell block involved – 1A – was under the control of military intelligence officers 24 hours a day.

"They were in there at 2 in the morning, they were (there) at 4 in the afternoon," she told the paper, adding that she had never been in the area, despite having overall control of the prison.

Foreign Minister Alexander Downer conceded yesterday that the mistreatment provided a "propaganda victory for al-Qa'ida", but stopped short of describing the behaviour as a breach of the Geneva Convention on torture.

However, Human Rights Watch in New York said that under the Geneva Conventions, mistreatment of prisoners that amounted to "torture or inhuman treatment" would be a war crime.

Kenneth Roth, executive director of HRW, a respected private monitor of human rights abuses, claimed the bold behaviour of the soldiers in posing for photographs with the prisoners "suggests they had nothing to hide from their superiors".

The scandal is a devastating blow to the US image in Iraq, where the Iraqi Governing Council is demanding an investigation. Council member Ghazi Mashal Ajil al-Yawer told Associated Press the perpetrators must be punished "as war criminals" because "the dignity of an Iraqi citizen is no less than the dignity of an American".

Investigative reporter Seymour Hersh in The New Yorker magazine said a leaked Pentagon report by Major-General Antonio Taguba, completed in February, found that between October and December last year there were numerous cases of "sadistic, blatant and wanton criminal abuses" of Iraqi prisoners at the prison.

Among the alleged abuses were: breaking chemical lights and pouring the phosphoric liquid on detainees; pouring cold water on naked detainees; beating detainees with a broom handle and a chair; threatening male detainees with rape; allowing a military police guard to stitch the wound of a detainee who was injured after being slammed against the wall in his cell; sodomising a detainee with a chemical light and perhaps a broom stick, and using military working dogs to frighten and intimidate detainees with threats of attack, and in one instance actually biting a detainee.

Six reservist military police, including several women, have been charged and face court-martial. But Hersh also reported some of the accused soldiers claimed they had been urged to act by military intelligence interrogators.

The Taguba report said army intelligence officers, CIA agents and private contractors "actively requested that MP guards set physical and mental conditions for favourable interrogation of witnesses".

The most senior of those charged, Sergeant Ivan Frederick, in letters to his family blamed military intelligence, according to Hersh.

He claimed he questioned some things that were done, such as leaving prisoners with no clothes or in women's underpants, but was told "this is how the military intelligence wants it done". The intelligence officers "encouraged and told us 'great job', they were now getting positive results and information".

He also claimed a man brought in by the CIA and its employees had died. "They stressed him out so bad that the man passed away," he wrote, the magazine said.

"They put his body in a body bag and packed him in ice for approximately 24 hours in the shower. The next day the medics came and put his body on a stretcher, placed a fake IV (intravenous drip) in his arm and took him away."

No record was made that the man had been there.

President George W. Bush, who cites the end of Saddam's torture chambers as a justification for war, has tried to reel in the public relations disaster the claims represent.

"(The prisoners') treatment does not reflect the nature of the American people," Mr Bush said. "That's not the way we do things in America. And so I – I didn't like it one bit."

The British allegations, complete with photographs showing a hooded man being urinated on and assaulted with a rifle butt, were made by two anonymous soldiers to the Daily Mirror newspaper.

"The prisoner, aged 18-20, begged for mercy as he was battered with rifle butts and batons in the head and groin, was kicked, stamped and urinated on, and had a gun barrel forced into his mouth," the paper said.

Barely conscious after eight hours of assaults, he was thrown from a truck. It was not known if he survived.

"If it happened, it's completely unacceptable," said British Prime Minister Tony Blair.

"If this is proven, the perpetrators are not fit to wear the Queen's uniform," said Chief of the General Staff General Sir Michael Jackson.

The Sunday Telegraph newspaper said military police were expected to arrest six soldiers from the Queen's Lancashire Regiment in connection with the apparent abuse by tomorrow.

The Sunday Times reported that the treatment may have been part of a series of revenge beatings for the murder of a British soldier last August, although the Sunday Express also suggested the pictures could have been "a cruel joke".

HRW's Mr Roth said the US had been slack at cracking down on troops who had already been shown to have abused prisoners in Iraq and Afghanistan. "It is clear that the US has not taken the issue of prisoner abuse seriously enough," he charged.

Results 1 - 10 of about 106 for Seymour Hersh.

Results 1 - 10 of about 15,500 for New Yorker Seymour Hersh



Amnesty Int'l
Iraq: Torture not isolated -- independent investigations
Fri Apr 30, 2004 20:55

Iraq: Torture not isolated -- independent investigations vital

There is a real crisis of leadership in Iraq -- with double standards and double speak on human rights, Amnesty International said today.

"The latest evidence of torture and ill-treatment emerging from Abu Ghraib prison will exacerbate an already fragile situation. The prison was notorious under Saddam Hussein -- it should not be allowed to become so again. Iraq has lived under the shadow of torture for far too long. The Coalition leadership must send a clear signal that torture will not be tolerated under any circumstances and that the Iraqi people can now live free of such brutal and degrading practices," Amnesty International said.

"There must be a fully independent, impartial and public investigation into all allegations of torture. Nothing less will suffice. If Iraq is to have a sustainable and peaceful future, human rights must be a central component of the way forward. The message must be sent loud and clear that those who abuse human rights will be held accountable.

"Our extensive research in Iraq suggests that this is not an isolated incident. It is not enough for the USA to react only once images have hit the television screens".

Amnesty International has received frequent reports of torture or other ill-treatment by Coalition Forces during the past year. Detainees have reported being routinely subjected to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment during arrest and detention. Many have told Amnesty International that they were tortured and ill-treated by US and UK troops during interrogation. Methods often reported include prolonged sleep deprivation; beatings; prolonged restraint in painful positions, sometimes combined with exposure to loud music; prolonged hooding; and exposure to bright lights. Virtually none of the allegations of torture or ill-treatment has been adequately investigated by the authorities.

Amnesty International is calling for investigations into alleged abuses by Coalition Forces to be conducted by a body that is competent, impartial and independent, and seen to be so, and that any findings of such investigations be made public. In addition reparation, including compensation, must be paid to the victims or to their families.

U.S. Military in Iraq Torture Scandal

Brig. Gen. Mark Kimmitt, deputy director of coalition operations in Iraq, admitted that this was not an isolated series of incidents: “I'd like to sit here and say that these are the only prisoner abuse cases that we're aware of, but we know that there have been some other ones since we've been here in Iraq,”

Experts agree: Geneva rules broken


Contact: Michael Avery, President, 617-573-8551
Heidi Boghosian, Executive Director, 212-679-5100, ext. 11 

2003 State of the Union Address Contained Implicit Admission 

New York, June 18, 2004--The National Lawyers Guild calls for the prosecution of President George W. Bush with a "command responsibility" theory of liability under the War Crimes Act. Bush can be prosecuted under the War Crimes Act or the Torture Statute, if he knew or should have known about the U.S. military's use of torture and failed to stop or prevent it. A comment in the President's January 2003 State of the Union Address contained an implicit admission by Bush that he had sanctioned the summary execution of many when he said: "All told, more than 3,000 suspected terrorists have been arrested in many countries, and many others have met a different fate." "Let's put it this way," he continued, "they are no longer a problem for the United States and our friends and allies." 

The Defense Department and the Justice Department each commissioned documents attempting to justify the use of torture under the President's war-making power, notwithstanding the Constitution's clear mandate that only Congress can make the laws. The Defense Department memo said that as commander-in-chief, the President has a "constitutionally superior position" to Congress. This blatant disregard for the tripartite Separation of Powers doctrine is also contrary to the landmark ruling in the Korean War case, Youngstown Sheet & Tire Co. v. Sawyers, in which the Supreme Court held, "In the framework of our Constitution, the President's power to see that the laws are faithfully executed refutes the idea that he is to be a lawmaker." 

The Convention Against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment was ratified by the United States and is thus part of the supreme law of the land. Congress implemented U.S. obligations under this treaty by enacting the Torture Statute, which provides 20 years, life in prison, or even the death penalty if death results from torture committed by a U.S. citizen abroad. The USA PATRIOT Act added the crime of conspiracy to commit torture to the Torture Statute. The Convention Against Torture prohibits the intentional infliction of severe physical or mental pain or suffering on a person to (a) obtain a confession, (b) punish him or (c) intimidate or coerce him based on discrimination of any kind. To violate this treaty, the pain or suffering must be inflicted "by or at the instigation of or with the consent or acquiescence of a public official or other person acting in an official capacity." 

The Istanbul Protocol of 9 August 1999 is the Manual on the Effective Investigation and Documentation of Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment. It sets forth international guidelines for the United Nations High Commission for Human Rights. Included in the Protocol's list of torture methods are rape, blunt trauma, forced positioning, asphyxiation, crush injuries, humiliations, death threats, forced engagement in practices violative of religion, and threat of attacks by dogs. The photographs and reports from prisoners in Abu Ghraib include all of these techniques. Moreover, the Defense Department analysis maintained that a torturer could get off it he acted in "good faith," not thinking his actions would result in severe mental harm. If the torturer based his conduct on the advice of these memos, he could according to this argument, have acted in good faith. 

Referring to the 9/11 Commission's preliminary reports issued this week, National Lawyers Guild President Michael Avery said: "The Justice Department memorandum reads like a pre-trial brief on behalf of the Nazi defendants in the Nuremberg trial. It's rife with justification after justification for the use of torture." 

Bush implicitly admitted sanctioning willful killing, torture and/or inhuman treatment in his 2003 State of the Union Address. The Constitution mandates the impeachment of a President for high crimes and misdemeanors. There is no higher crime than a war crime. Willful killing, torture and inhuman treatment constitute grave breaches of the Geneva Convention, which are considered war crimes under The War Crimes Act of 1996. 

The National Lawyers Guild, founded in 1937, comprises over 6,000 members and activists in the service of the people. Its national office is headquartered in New York and it has chapters in nearly every state, as well as over 100 law school chapters. Guild members provide legal support to progressive demonstrations throughout the country, and well understand the nationwide trend toward increasingly repressive measures deployed against political protesters.


(Excerpt) -

The Geneva Convention:

Article 17

No physical or mental torture, nor any other form of coercion, may be inflicted on prisoners of war to secure from them information of any kind whatever. Prisoners of war who refuse to answer may not be threatened, insulted, or exposed to any unpleasant or disadvantageous treatment of any kind.

Geneva Convention relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War



Famous World Trials
Nuremberg Trials
1945 - 1949
A Trial Account
by Douglas O. Linder

No trial provides a better basis for understanding the nature and causes of evil than do the Nuremberg trials from 1945 to 1949. Those who come to the trials expecting to find
sadistic monsters are generally disappointed. What is shocking about Nuremberg is the ordinariness of the defendants: men who may be good fathers, kind to animals, even unassuming--yet committed unspeakable crimes. Years later, reporting on the trial of Adolf Eichmann, Hannah Arendt wrote of "the banality of evil." Like Eichmann, most Nuremberg defendants never aspired to be villains. Rather, they either overidentified with an ideological cause or suffered from a lack of imagination: they couldn't fully appreciate the human consequences of their career-motivated decisions....

The Nuremberg Trials

War Crimes After Nuremberg

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