GOG, MAGOG AND THE
KINGDOM OF THE KHAZARS

Part II

THE KHAZAR ORIGIN OF THE ASHKENAZIM

"Judah...hath married the daughter of a strange god. The
Lord will cut off the man that doeth this."
Malachi 2:11, 12


Khazar

    Modern Jews are essentially divided into two major categories, ethnically and culturally: Sephardim and Ashkenazim.

    The former are primarily of Spanish origin; the name Sephardim being derived from Sepharad, the Hebrew word for Spain, and are likely the closest to actual Semitic Jews that can be established. They were expelled from Spain toward the beginning of the sixteenth century and immigrated to the eastern Mediterranean and Balkans.

    As late as 1960s the Sephardic Jews numbered only about 500,000, compared with the Ashkenazim of the same period estimated at approximately twelve million. 61

    In defining the origins of the Ashkenazim, Alan Brook states that "The geographic location of the Ashkenaz, based on references in the Torah, may be centered around southern Russia, Armenia, and Asia Minor. The ashkaenoi (askae or askai) were the people also known as Phrygians or Mysians (Meshech)." Some historians claim that the name Ashkenaz applies exclusively to German Jews. However, more recent evidence shows that they had immigrated from the southern regions of Russia and western Asia and Asia Minor -- that region clearly identified as the location and origin of the ancient Khazars. The name originally indicated Iranians and was later given as the name of the god of Meshech, Men Askaenos. "It should also be pointed out," Brook adds, "that Ashkenaz did not become a definite Jewish designation for Germany until the eleventh century." 62

    "According to the explanation by the Talmud," writes Hugo Freiherr, "Ashkenaz thus means a country near the Black Sea between Ararat and the Caucasus, within the original region of the Khazar empire." 63 This, again, is precisely the geographic locality of the Khazarian empire. The Talmudic observation is abetted by Scripture which names Ashkenaz as descending not from Shem but from Japheth through Gomer, and whose uncles were Magog and Tubal. (See Gen. 10:3)

    Ashkenaz (alt. spelling: Ashchenaz) is mentioned in but one scripture other than 1 Chronicles 6:1, which is only another reference to the genealogy as descending from Japheth. In the book of Jeremiah the prophet, God announces that Israel is to call upon other nations as allies in bringing His judgments against Babylon. Among those allies, who are not part of Israel or Judah, and therefore could not be numbered as Jews, is Ashchenaz. (See Jer. 51:27)

    UNESCO, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, published a series of booklets entitled, The Race Question in Modern Science, in which oneof the authors, Harry Shapiro, states:

The wide range of variation between Jewish populations in their physical characteristics and the diversity of the gene frequencies of their blood groups render any unified racial classification for them a contradiction in terms. For although modern racial theory admits some degree of polymorphism or variation within a racial group, it does not permit distinctly different groups, measured by its own criteria of race, to be identified as one. To do so would make the biological purposes of racial classification futile and the whole procedure arbitrary and meaningless. ...despite the evidence efforts continue to be made to somehow segregate the Jews as a distinct racial entity. 64

    Thus, attempting to claim the existence of a "race" of Jews has been proven to be an anthropological impossibility. Though their God consistently warned them against intermingling themselves amongst non-Jewish races, their miscegenistic tendencies are well documented, and has resulted in their complete erasure as a distinct, genetic peoples.

    When, inevitably, there was mixing of Western European and Khazarian Jews, there was a notable difference between the educational levels of the two Jewish sub-cultures. The Khazars greatly admired their vastly less numerous but far more learned Western (German speaking) brethren and quickly adopted their language, education and cultural practices. This resulted, also, in an assimilation of their other talents in the area of economics, business and things politik.

    "The Khazars were not descended from the Tribes," says Koestler, "but, as we have seen, they shared a certain cosmopolitanism and other social characteristics with their co-religionists." 65

    Somewhere in the historical roots of the Ashkenazi Khazars there incubated a desire to possess a national Jewish homeland. That desire expressed itself in the form of a Messianic movement in twelfth century Khazaria that took on the texture of a "Jewish crusade" whose goal was the forcible subjugation of Palestine. A Khazar Jew named Solomon ben Duji instigated the movement and began an international correspondence with all the Jews of surrounding nations.

    It seems that ben Duji was possessed of messianic delusions of his own in that he claimed that "the time had come in which God would gather Israel, His people from all lands to Jerusalem, the holy city, and that Solomon Ben Duji was Elijah, and his son the Messiah." 66

    This desire for a Jewish homeland echoed down the centuries and found expression again. "It was among Ashkenazi Jews," says the Encyclopedia Americana, "that the idea of political Zionism emerged, leading ultimately to the establishment of the state of Israel....In the late 1960s, Ashkenazi Jews numbered some 11 million, about 84 percent of the world Jewish population." 67

    At times Arthur Koestler, in his broad and extensive treatment of this subject, appears, as a Jew himself, to wrestle with the glaring contradiction that the Jews, who have no genetic or true ethnic identity, are entitled to land they have never, by any right of descent, owned or possessed, and whose ancestors have never occupied. Then, claiming to be the state of Israel, created by United Nations fiat, they arbitrarily removed that land from the possession of those who have legitimately owned and occupied it for thousands of years. Mr. Koestler claims that such right "is not based on the hypothetical origins of the Jewish people, nor on the mythological covenant of Abraham with God; it is based on international law -- i.e., on the United Nations' decision in 1947 to partition Palestine...[actually declared, May 14, 1948.]" 68

    Thus he eliminates what would logically seem to be the most legitimate grounds (if there are any at all) for the establishment of Israel (possession by racial lineage), and bases his argument on the vaporous contention of what he calls "international law".

    What the United Nations did in 1948 was arguably to make its first official act a violation of its own charter in the dispossession of over four million Palestinians for the purpose of creating a nation that had no ancestral or current right whatever to the land.

    The apparent conflict in Koestler's mind becomes evident in an apparent contradiction as he concludes that the faith of Judaism "transformed the Jews of the Diaspora into a pseudo-nation without any of the attributes and privileges of nationhood, held together loosely by a system of traditional beliefs based on racial and historical premises which turn out to be illusory." 69 Succinctly stated, he maintains that the idea of a Jewish national identity is based on an illusion created by a history that does not exist.

    It will be shown that the influx of what we now know to be Jews of Khazarian origin constituted the first "invasion" of Gog from the land of Magog, as prophesied in Biblical scripture. The fascinating aspect of it is that, as with virtually all other prophecies, those claiming theological pre-eminence in their knowledge of Scripture completely missed the fulfilment -- just as did the Jews at the first coming of the Messiah.

GOG, MAGOG AND THE ASHKENAZIM

    It has long been the belief of twentieth (and now twenty-first) century Christianity that near the end of this world's history as outlined in the Bible, Gog from the land of Magog, defined by those Christians as Russia -- the "King of the North" -- would invade the Holy Land of present-day Israel.

    World and local ministries of the conservative Christian persuasion spend inordinate amounts of time in attempts to "decode" such prophecies as found in Ezekiel 38 & 39, Daniel 11 and Revelation 20, and virtually all of them have come to the above stated conclusion. In most cases, belief in the invasion of Israel by Russia and the defeat of anti-Christ in the subsequent war of Armageddon is accompanied by the idea that there will be a one-thousand year reign of peace after Christ returns to the earth.

    Representative of this almost universal belief are such as Grant Jeffrey, Tim LaHaye (principle co-author of the Left Behind book series), the Jack Van Impe ministries, etc.

    Van Impe, a widely known radio and television evangelist, has published volumes of literature on Biblical prophecy and much on the matter of Gog and Magog.

    "When Russia heads south to do battle," writes Van Impe in an article entitled Armageddon: The End or the Beginning? "she will be a mighty force as she comes against the Antichrist's army with chariots, horsemen, and with many ships. This is the first military wave," Van Impe continues, "of the three-pronged Armageddon campaign mentioned in Daniel 11:40 when the king of the south (Egypt and her Arab Federation) and the king of the north (Russia) begin their pincer movement. Ezekiel 38:16 says, 'And thou shalt come up against my people of Israel, as a cloud to cover the land; it shall be in the latter days, and I will bring thee against my land, that the heathen may know me, when I shall be sanctified in thee, O Gog, before their eyes.' Once Russia has made her move, the Antichrist will be furious. He will enter the 'glorious land,' Israel.

    "Immediately," concludes Van Impe, "he situates himself in Jerusalem."

    In reference to former Russian President Boris Yeltzin and other Russian leaders, Van Impe asks, "Could oneof these above leaders be the 'Gog' of Ezekiel 38:2?"

    This scriptural perspective of Gog invading Israel from the north at some future time is also largely held by Jewish theologians. For example in an October, 1996 Jerusalem Post article entitled "All a-Gog", columnist Moshe Kohn addresses the subject:

    "The war to end all wars is to be launched against Eretz Yisrael by 'Gog of the land of Magog, chief prince of Meshech and Tuval' as foretold in Ezekiel 38 and 39.

    "We don't know what or who Magog, Meshech, Tuval and Gog are; we only know that Gog and his allies are to come down on Eretz Yisrael from the north. God will then destroy the invaders, and 'I will restore the fortunes of Jacob, and have mercy on the whole House of Israel ... and I will not hide my face from them any more.'

    "The New Testament also mentions the Gog/Magog War, in Revelation 20, as the final battle between the rulers of Earth led by Satan and the forces of God. In that version, this war may also be what is known in Christian tradition as the Battle of Armageddon, a place mentioned in Revelation 16:16." 70

How some historians view the origins of Gog and Magog:

    In response to those who believe that Gog in the land of Magog is specifically Russia, Revelation 20:8 provides a clarification as to the true geographical region of Gog in the last days: "the nations which are in the four quarters of the earth, Gog and Magog,..." This world force, from "the four quarters of the earth" is ubiquitous, not existing in Russia only; not just exclusive to the area of the compass north of Palestine. The names Gog and Magog appear to be used only as an indication of their origins, not their final location.

    There is but one identifiable group which fits that "ubiquitous" designation of occupying "the four quarters of the earth"; a group whose religious-cultural identity has remained intact, though their ethnic origins have vanished in antiquity; that, in spite of two thousand years of being decimated by persecution, forced emigration, disease and war, have still survived; whose roots are precisely where prophetic Scripture says they would be -- in the northland of Magog, the southern steppes of Russia.

    Just as the Jews, by misinterpreting Scripture to suit their nationalistic desires, missed the first coming of their Messiah, so also have Christians, in the same way, reinventing the same mistakes, missed the prophetic issues of the last days -- and -- the second coming of Messiah. They have placed the invasion of Palestine as being sometime in the future when it has already taken place, and in such an unexpected manner as to have come upon them, as does the Messiah, like "a thief in the night."

    As one nineteenth-century prophet wrote: "The world is no more ready to credit the message for this time than were the Jews to receive the Saviour's warning concerning Jerusalem." 79 This is clearly as much the case now as when those words were penned.

A HOMELAND FOR GOG and MAGOG

If the present trend continues for another 37 years in the same direction and at the same rate traveled for the past 37 years, the Christian faith as it is professed today by Christians will have disappeared from the face of the earth. In what form or by what instrumentality the mission of Jesus Christ will thereupon and thereafter continue to make itself manifest here on earth is as unpredictable as it is inevitable. --Benjamin H. Freedman

In a word, to sum up our system of keeping the governments of the goyim in Europe in check, we shall show our strength to one of them by terrorist attempts and to all, if we allow the possibility of a general rising against us, we shall respond with the guns of America. --The Seventh Protocol of the Learned Elders of Zion

It is not my intention in this letter to expose the conspirators who are dedicating themselves to the destruction of the Christian faith nor to the nature and extent of the conspiracy itself. That exposure would fill many volumes. The history of the world for the past several centuries and current events at home and abroad confirm the existence of such a conspiracy. The Christian clergy appear to be more ignorant or more indifferent about this conspiracy than other Christians. The Christian clergy may be shocked to learn that they have been aiding and abetting the dedicated enemies of the Christian faith. --Freedman

Freedom of conscience has been declared everywhere, so that now only years divide us from the moment of the complete wrecking of that Christian religion: as to other religions we shall have still less difficulty in dealing with them. We shall act clericalism and clericals into such narrow frames as to make their influence move in retrogressive proportion to its former progress. --The Seventeenth Protocol of the Learned Elders of Zion

What secret mysterious power has been able for countless generations to keep the origin and the history of the Khazars and Khazar Kingdom out of history text-books and out of class-room courses in history throughout the world? The origin and history of the Khazars and Khazar Kingdom are certainly incontestable historical facts. --Freedman

Our power in the present tottering condition of all forms of power will be more invincible than any other, because it will remain invisible until the moment when it has gained such strength that no cunning can any longer undermine it. --The First Protocol of the Learned Elders of Zion

    Benjamin Freedman, as mentioned earlier, was an Ashkenazic Jew who was highly placed in the American government in the early to middle part of the twentieth century and had rather free access to presidents and statesmen up to the Kennedy Administration.

    Mr. Freedman, once a wealthy Jewish businessman, became disillusioned with his Jewish heritage after learning of their origins and their political machinations worldwide. Breaking with organized Jewry he spent the majority of his great wealth in attempts to reveal to the world the true driving force behind the establishment of the nation of Israel by the United Nations as well as other historical misconceptions concerning the Khazarian roots of modern Judaism.

    In a compelling narrative of the world history of that era, Freedman relates the fomenting of the treachery he witnessed in the manipulation of the outcome of WWI.

    Germany, according to Freedman and other historians, was apparently winning, and had virtually won, the war, when they made, in the summer of 1916, a very surprising and magnanimous offer to Great Britain. England was in a very precarious position at that time; essentially out of ammunition with food supplies for about one week remaining, to be followed by national starvation; German submarines, taking the Allies completely by surprise, had cut off all shipping convoys. Then came the most unexpected of all -- Germany offered terms for peace.

    "At that time," says Freedman, "the French army had mutinied. They had lost 600,000 of the flower of French youth in the defense of Verdun on the Somme. The Russian army was defecting, they were picking up their toys and going home, they didn't want to play war anymore, they didn't like the Czar. And the Italian army had collapsed.

    "Not a shot had been fired on German soil" Freedman continues. "Not one enemy soldier had crossed the border into Germany" yet they offered peace. And not the ordinary peace of the conqueror to the conquered. The Germans proposed a status quo ante peace settlement, meaning that both sides would return to the same status as before the initiation of hostilities.

    With the enticement of such an offer, and with all other options effectively eliminated, Britain had little choice but to accept. However, there arose another offer, much more attractive to the British ego, which would bring about a victory heretofore impossible.

    While Germany was attempting to end the war in a more-than-equitable manner, German Zionists, representing Zionists from Eastern Europe, approached the British War Cabinet and offered them an alternative to merely pretending that a war had never happened.

    At this point, it would be well to define "Zionist". Those were (and are) Jews whose dominant purpose was the establishment of a "Jewish Homeland", a proposition that the majority of Jews at that time did not endorse. Webster's Collegiate Dictionary defines "Zionism" as "an international movement orig. for the establishment of a Jewish national or religious community in Palestine and later for the support of modern Israel."

    At the time that the United Nations decreed Israel to be a legitimate state, May 14, 1948, the most conservative of Jewish sects, the Hasidim, strongly opposed the establishment of a secular state of Israel, claiming that it was wrong to do so apart from Messiah's coming.

    The offer made the British at the time of Germany's near total victory, consisted of a proposal to bring the United States into the war on Britain's side and thus insure an Allied victory. This was contingent on the British, after the defeat of Germany, agreeing to secure a large section of Palestine as a Jewish homeland -- keeping in mind that this cabal was being created by those who had no connected ancestry, whatever, to the Semitic tribes of ancient Israel, and therefore no ancestral right to fabricate even a remote claim to the region.

    Freedman makes the observation that England had no more right to promise Palestine to the Jews than "the United States would have to promise Japan to Ireland" -- but that is precisely what they did. This promise resulted in the drafting of a small historical document called The Balfour Declaration. The following is the text, in its entirety, of this short and concise historical document:

Foreign Office
November 2nd, 1917

Dear Lord Rothschild,

I have much pleasure in conveying to you, on behalf of His Majesty's Government, the following declaration of sympathy with Jewish Zionist aspirations which has been submitted to, and approved by, the Cabinet.

"His Majesty's Government view with favour the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people, and will use their best endeavours to facilitate the achievement of this object, it being clearly understood that nothing shall be done which may prejudice the civil and religious rights of existing non-Jewish communities in Palestine, or the rights and political status enjoyed by Jews in any other country."

I should be grateful if you would bring this declaration to the knowledge of the Zionist Federation.

Yours sincerely,
Arthur James Balfour

    Note the second sentence (which is also the second paragraph) which claims that "that nothing shall be done which may prejudice the civil and religious rights of existing non-Jewish communities in Palestine". Was it perhaps not considered at that time that the forcible dispossession of other persons from their land and property -- namely the Palestinian Arabs -- was a violation or prejudicial to their "civil and religious rights"? That does seem a bit of a stretch.

    An interesting point in Freedman's presentation is that the German Jews were very well treated in their land, many of them having fled persecution from Russia and other Eastern European countries. As Freedman puts it, "the Jews had never been better off in any country in the world than they had been in Germany." Nearly all of the great industrial giants of that time, the Rathenaus, the Balins, Bleichroder, the Warburgs, and of course, the Rothchilds (to whom the Balfour letter is addressed), were Jews and resided in Germany.

    What the Zionists did was nothing less than a classical "sell out" of their German homeland. The methods used to bring the United States into the war against Germany also appear to be classical in that it was a pattern for many other such inducements for the US to enter wars it had no business fighting. As with the Serbian conflict and many others of this age, where fabricated atrocities against ethnic minorities, women and children were used to gain the agreement of the American Congress and citizens, so also was that device used to bring the US into WWI.

    Freedman notes that the American media, which prior to that had been somewhat pro-German, began reporting that the Germans were engaged in the commission of atrocities which, it was later proven, were utterly false: atrocities such as the shooting of Red Cross nurses and cutting off babies hands, etc.

    During Freedman's involvement with matters of state he attended the Paris Conference in 1919, where Germany was presented with demands for reparations. In that conference, according to Mr. Freedman, there were 117 Jews present, being represented by Bernard Baruch, presenting their demands for the partitioning of Palestine as a Jewish homeland.

    As to what made it possible for the actual establishment of the State of Israel as opposed to a mere political declaration by the United Nations, Mr. Freedman expounds. "It is a well-established and an undeniable historic fact," he writes, "that the active participation of the United States in the conquest of Palestine, on behalf of the Zionists, was the factor responsible for the conquest of Palestine by the Zionists. Without the active participation of the United States," Freedman reemphasizes, "it is certain that the Zionists would never have attempted the conquest of Palestine by force of arms."

    The rest, as it is said, is history.

    When one considers all of that history which has been involved in shaping the world and especially the Middle East as it is today, it becomes less of a mystery as to why the Palestinian Muslims are possessed of such an animosity and hatred of those who, according to all that has been presented here, literally stole their lives and lands. It also seems to remove the mystery from the question the American president asked as to why they hate America as much as they do -- America, who has been the chief military supplier and financier of Gog and Magog in the Khazarian usurpation of Palestine. As Mr. Bush has said, "If you support terrorists, you are a terrorist;" so also can it be said by the Muslims, "If you support our enemies who steal our land and our dignity and our history, you are also our enemies."

    That message should have rung loud and clear on September 11, 2001 when even two of America's top Christian evangelists (Pat Robertson and Jerry Falwell) claimed that the act was Divine retribution for the sins of America. They, of course, abandoned that unpopular position when public sentiment turned against them. One would have to ask if, in that instance, those two men had effectively defined the terms conviction and commitment for the followers of their brand of "Christianity".

EPILOG

    Many historians, some cited within this work, quote widely from Arthur Koestler's book The Thirteenth Tribe as a credible literary resource for a comprehensive history of the Khazars. This writing has also leaned heavily on Mr. Koestler's tome as well as several other Jewish historians and academics. It is interesting to note that of the Jewish scholars citing The Thirteenth Tribe in their historical accounts, virtually none quote such comments of Koestler, previously cited, as "The story of the Khazar Empire, as it slowly emerges from the past, begins to look like the most cruel hoax which history has ever perpetrated." One would have to ask if such omissions are not intentional and do not amount to a de facto censoring of many unpopular aspects of this interesting and far-reaching history.

    Koestler, himself an Ashkenasic Jew, expressed these sentiments in an apparent disappointment with the history of his own faith and the essentially deleterious effect it has had upon the world. Yet he did not forsake the religion of his fathers, nor is it implied in this thesis that he should have.

    For a non-Jew, such as this writer, to quote him and use his work to such an extent, incorporating it so as to illustrate that biblical prophecies concerning the evils of Gog and Magog clearly point to the Talmudic Khazarians, risks the accusation of anti-Semitism. Such a response, however, should have been clearly shown to be vacuous at best, considering the proofs herein presented that those Jews who hold political rule over Palestine are not even remotely descended from Semitic tribes.

    One cannot, however, help but stand in awe at the consummate ability of these peoples who, comprising from one to six per cent of the average population of countries outside of Israel, have managed to acquire positions of power and influence far exceeding their representation in the general populace of those nations.

    Mr. Freedman, as mentioned, was an Ashkenazic Jew. In his disgust with what he witnessed his brethren doing he has used rather forcible language outlining their actions and origins.

Concerning them he unequivocally states:

There wasn't one of them who had an ancestor who ever put a toe in the Holy Land. Not only in Old Testament history, but back to the beginning of time. Not one of them! And yet they come to the Christians and ask us to support their armed insurrections in Palestine by saying, "You want to help repatriate God's Chosen People to their Promised Land, their ancestral home, don't you? It's your Christian duty. We gave you one of our boys as your Lord and Savior. You now go to church on Sunday, and you kneel and you worship a Jew, and we're Jews." But they are pagan Khazars who were converted just the same as the Irish were converted. It is as ridiculous to call them "people of the Holy Land," as it would be to call the 54 million Chinese Moslems "Arabs."

    The plain, blunt conclusion to the matter is that Gog and Magog have clearly and stealthily -- albeit, in a slow-motion tidal wave -- invaded from the north as per Biblical prophecy. Invaded not only Palestine, but the entire world; every nation on the "four quarters of the earth" has come within the pale of their influence. These descendants of the "pagan Khazars" who profess to be the true and original people of God have insinuated themselves into every bastion of power on earth. If there are any exceptions to that fact, they are as insignificant, in their estimation of things, as a fly to a rhinoceros.

    They (the race of Gog) control fully ten percent of the United States Senate, arguably the most powerful and influential legislative body on earth. They have skillfully controlled the U.S. Administration and the Department of Defense and again involved this nation in a war in which it has no business. This extraordinarily ingenious and talented race have placed spectacles astride the noses of politicians and Christians alike that cause it to appear to them as if this conflict is justified; to elicit statements, as from the U.S. President, that those with whom this nation has declared war are haters of democracy and freedom, when all they truly wanted was to be left alone to worship under the tenets of their own religion, unmolested by those who have already stolen nearly everything they have -- and done so with the money, influence and guns of the United States of America.

    This writer spent some time in Israel witnessing personally the injustices perpetrated there by a people who had no rightful claim to the land, upon a people who did. Having gone there with a somewhat "pro-Israeli" bias, it soon became evident that any ruling class that skillfully engineers an economy where one segment enjoys an average 15 to 1 income advantage over another, under the same cost of living, cannot feign innocence when they experience the hatred and animosity from those whom they oppress.

    The "spirit of Gog" did say it would use the "guns of America" to accomplish its purposes, and now it is clearly seen, in Afghanistan, as they spill the blood of whom they will, to accomplish what they will, that they were not at all jesting in that assertion.

    Another fascinating element that inspires wonderment is the remarkable manner in which Biblical prophecy has been so accurately fulfilled -- AND -- how thoroughly modern Christianity has missed that fulfillment. At the outset it seems strange that these Biblical "scholars" have mislaid the lessons of history: primarily, that prophecies have never been interpreted in advance of their fulfillment, except by the prophets who gave them, as to what they would look like. Yet they continue to try, and the result is entertaining at best, and tragic at least, for they are left to follow interpretations of their own devising -- sparks of their own kindling. They have been so hypnotized and "drugged" by the idea of supporting and funding the marvelous "return of the Jews to their homeland" that they are as lemmings being willingly herded into the sea.

    Yes, Gog and Magog have invaded the entire world, and what is even more astonishing is that it was done with not only the blessing of professed Christianity, but with their financial support and liturgical encouragement. They have truly dug their own ecclesiastical graves.

"Behold, it is come, and it is done, saith the Lord God;
this is the day whereof I have spoken."
Ezekiel 39:8

 


 

Suggested Reading:

References:

  1. Koestler, Arthur, The Thirteenth Tribe: The Khazar Empire and Its Heritage, New York: Random House, 1976, p. 17
  2. Dunlop, D. M., The History of the Jewish Khazars, Princeton University Press, 1954
  3. Brook, Kevin Alan, The Jews of Khazaria, Jason Aronson, Inc. Northvale, NJ, Jerusalem, 1999.
  4. Peter B. Golden, Khazar Studies, vol. 1 (Budapest: Akademiai, 1980), pp. 55-56.
  5. Brook, The Jews of Khazaria
  6. Bury, J. B., A History of the Eastern Roman Empire (London, 1912).
  7. Koestler, The Thirteenth Tribe, p. 18.
  8. Brook, The Jews of Khazaria, p. 27
  9. Artamonov, M. I., Khazar History (Leningrad, 1962). Koestler, The Thirteeth Tribe, p. 19.
  10. Bruce G. Trigger, A History of Archaeological Thought (Cambridge, England: Cambridge UniversityPress, 1989), p. 207.
  11. Brook, The Jews of Khazaria, p. 3.
  12. Ibid., p. 4
  13. Peter B. Golden, An Introduction to the History of the Turkic Peoples, Wiesbaden, Germany, 1992.
  14. Ibn-Said al-Maghribi, quoted by Dunlop, p. II. Dunlop, D. M., The History of the Jewish Khazars (Princeton, 1954).
  15. Omeljan Pritsak, The Khazar Kingdom's Conversion to Judaism, Harvard Ukrainian Studies 3:2 (Sept, 1978): 271.
  16. Andrew C. Gow, The Red Jews (Leiden, Netherlands: E. J. Brill, 1995), pp. 40-41.
  17. Brook, The Jews of Khazaria, p. 10. Andrew C. Gow, The Red Jews (Leiden, Netherlands: E. J. Brill, 1995), p. 191.
  18. Brook, The Jews of Khazaria, pp. 10-11.
  19. Ibid., p. 16
  20. W. E. 0. Allen, A History of the Georgian People, London 1952.
  21. Douglas M. Dunlop, The History of the Jewish Khazars, p. 113.
  22. Tirmidhee, Abwaab al-Tafseer: Surat al-Kahf (Hadith 5160), 8/597-99; Ibn Maajah, Kitaab al-Fitan, (Hadith 4080), 2/1364. Ahmad, Musnad, 2/510, 511. http://www.islaam.com/ilm/gog.htm
  23. Gibbon, B., The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, Vol. V (2nd ed., London, 1901).
  24. Ibid.
  25. Koestler, The Thirteenth Tribe, p. 27]
  26. Ibid., p. 27-8.
  27. Ibid.
  28. Dunlop, D. M., "Khazars" in Enc. Judaica, 1971-2 printing.
  29. Koestler, The Thirteenth Tribe, p. 23-4.
  30. Bury, J. B., A History of the Eastern Roman Empire, p. 120.
  31. George Vernadsky, A History of Russia, Vol. 1 (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1948), p. 346.
  32. Brook, Kevin Alan, The Jews of Khazaria, (Jason Aronson, Inc. Northvale, NJ, Jerusalem), 1999.
  33. Omeljan Pritsak, The Khazar Kingdom's Conversion to Judaism, pp. 278-9.
  34. Dunlop, D. M., The History of the Jewish Khazars, p. 90 (Princeton, 1954). al-Bakri (ob. 487/1094)
  35. Koestler, The Thirteenth Tribe, p. 58.
  36. Ibid.
  37. Bury, J. B., A History of the Eastern Roman Empire, p. 406.
  38. Ibid.
  39. Brook, The Jews of Khazaria, p. 126.
  40. Yehuda HaLevi, The Kuzari, trans. N. Daniel Korobkin (Northvale, NJ: Jason Aronson, 1998), p. 1.
  41. Koestler, The Thirteenth Tribe, p. 66.
  42. Ibid., p. 72-4.
  43. McEvedy, C., The Penguin Atlas of Mediaeval History (1961).
  44. Macartney, C. A., The Magyars in the Ninth Century (Cambridge, 1930).
  45. Dunlop, D. M., The History of the Jewish Khazars (Princeton, 1954).
  46. Baron, S. W., A Social and Relgious History of the Jews, Vols. III and IV (New York, 1957).
  47. Koestler, The Thirteenth Tribe, p. 141, 144, 152.
  48. Cecil Roth., "Jews" in Enc. Britannica, 1973 printing.
  49. Koestler, The Thirteenth Tribe, p. 159.
  50. Ibid., p. 15, 16.
  51. A. N. Poliak, Khazaria -- The History of a Jewish Kingdom in Europe (Mossad Bialik, Tel Aviv, 1951).
  52. Kutschera, Hugo Freiherr von, Die Chasaren (Wien, 1910), Koestler, The Thirteenth Tribe, p. 169.
  53. Koestler, The Thirteenth Tribe, p. 172.
  54. Mieses, M., Die Jiddische Sprache (Berlin-Wien, 1924).
  55. Koestler, The Thirteenth Tribe, p. 179-80.
  56. Ibid., p.17.
  57. Barker, F., Crusades, Enc. Britannica, 14th ed., p. 772, 1973.
  58. Koestler, The Thirteenth Tribe, p. 163.
  59. Baron, S. W., A Social and Relgious History of the Jews, Vols. III and IV (New York, 1957).
  60. Koestler, The Thirteenth Tribe, p. 164-7.
  61. Ibid., p. 182.
  62. Brook, The Jews of Khazaria, p. 300.
  63. Hugo Freiherr von Kutschera, in Die Chasaren: Historische Studie (Vienna: A. Holzhausen, 1910,) (English translation.)
  64. Shapiro, H., "The Jewish People: A Biological History" (UNESCO, Paris, 1953).
  65. Koestler, The Thirteenth Tribe, p. 177.
  66. Baron, S. W., A Social and Religious History of the Jews, Vols. III and IV (New York, 1957).
  67. Encyclopedia Americana, 1985 edition.
  68. 13th Tribe, Appendix IV, p. 223.
  69. Koestler, The Thirteenth Tribe, Appendix IV, p. 224.
  70. JVIM International, http://www.jvim.com/IntelligenceBriefing/Dec1996/wars.html
  71. Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews, Book 1, Ch. 6.
  72. The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume VI, 1909, (Robert Appleton Company).
  73. Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews, Book 1, Ch. 2.
  74. Alexander A. Vasiliev, The Goths in the Crimea (Cambridge, MA: The Mediaeval Academy of America, 1936), p. 96.
  75. Jewish Travellers, ed. Elkan N. Adler (London: George Routledge & Sons, 1930), p. 83.
  76. Koestler, The Thirteenth Tribe, p. 24.
  77. Ibid., p. 81.
  78. Schultze -- Das Martyrium des heiligen Abo von Tiflis, Texte und Untersuchungen für Geschichte der altchristlichen Literatur, XIII (1905), 13th Tribe, p. 19, 20.
  79. E. G. White, The Great Controversy, (Pacific Press Publishing Company), 1888 edition.

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