THE HIJACKING OF AMERICA by SatanistS

Deuteronomy 7:4
For they will turn away thy Son from following me, that they may serve other gods: so will the anger of the LORD be kindled against you, and destroy thee suddenly.
 

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THE SECRETS OF BOHEMIAN GROVE
http://www.apfn.org/apfn/grove.asp 

SKULL & BONES:

The world is in the malignant grip of a satanic cult.

People recoil at the suggestion but proof stares us in the face every day.

George W. Bush, President of the "Free World" is a member of "Skull and Bones" a chapter of the Illuminati order. His father, grandfather and uncle are also members.

In his autobiography, "A Charge to Keep" Bush writes, "My senior year I joined Skull and Bones, a secret society so secret I can't say anything more." In Aug. 2000 he said his "heritage is part of who I am."

Isn't this a conflict of interest?

Hello! Can a man hold any public office, let alone the most important, and belong to a "secret society"? If this society were benign, would it have to be secret?

What a secret society it is! The Illuminati is the hidden hand behind all modern cataclysms, including the French and Russian Revolutions, Communism, the Depression and Nazism. To affect the course of history only takes money. The people behind the Illuminati have plenty.

It's time we faced reality. Murphy's Law applies to humanity. "If it can go wrong, it will."

It has. The world is ruled by a satanic cult.

THE ILLUMINATI AND THE SKULL & BONES

The Illuminati originates in the Jewish Kabala, Babylonian mystery cults, the Templars, Freemasons and assorted interests dedicated to Satan worship and absolute power. On May 1 1776, Adam Weishaupt, a professor at the University of Inglestadt in Germany, founded "The Order of the Illuminati." Many people believe Weishaupt was sponsored by Prince William of Hesse Casel and his banker Meyer Amschel Rothschild, the wealthiest man in the world.

The Illuminati's goal was to destroy Western Civilization and to erect a new world order ruled by them. Its method was to dissolve all social ties (employer, nation, religion, race, family) by exploiting social discontent and promising a golden age of "human brotherhood." This is now called "globalization."

Attracted by the promise of power and change, people served without realizing who or what they were supporting. Weishaupt urged his followers to "practise the art of counterfeit." New recruits were told the Illuminati expressed the original spirit of Christianity. Weishaupt marvelled that even churchmen could be gulled. "Oh! Men, of what cannot you be persuaded?" (Nesta Webster, World Revolution, 1921, p. 27)

The Illuminati had a hand in every so-called "progressive" movement of the past 200 years. Women, said Weishaupt, were to be enlisted with "hints of emancipation." They "can all be led toward change by vanity, curiosity, sensuality and inclination." (Webster, 29)

William Huntington, an American who had studied in Germany, founded the "Skull and Bones" (Chapter 322 of the Bavarian Illuminati) at Yale University in 1832. The members wore a death's head on their chests and were sworn to secrecy on pain of death. "The Order" became the preserve of the leading New England families, many wealthy from the Opium trade. These include the Whitneys, Tafts, Buckleys, Lowells, Sloans, Coffins, and Harrimans. The Bush family was dependent on these interests.

For over 150 years, "Bonesmen" have run the world from positions in banking, intelligence, media, law and government. Members included Presidential handler Averell Harriman, anti war leader William Sloan Coffin, Time-Life magnate Henry Luce, Truman war secretary Henry Stimson (responsible for dropping the atomic bomb), pseudo conservative William F. Buckley and many more.

"THE BATTLE IS NOT BETWEEN LEFT AND RIGHT"

In the 1960's British-born Dr. Anthony Sutton was a Fellow at Stanford's Hoover Institute when he discovered that, in spite of the Cold War, the US was supplying the USSR with its technology, including weapons used against American soldiers in Vietnam. Sutton dug deeper and discovered that Wall Street had sponsored both the Bolshevik Revolution and the rise of Nazi Germany. The resulting books which are on line cost Dr. Sutton his academic career.

In 1983, Dr. Sutton received a list of Skull and Bones members and immediately recognized the names of many men who controlled American policy. He published a book entitled "America's Secret Establishment: An Introduction to the Order of Skull and Bones" (1986). He updated and republished this book just before his death last June at age 77. Here are some of his conclusions.

  • "The Order" is " a purely American phenomenon with German origin." Dr. Sutton compares it to the Round Table, Cecil Rhodes' secret society at Oxford also known as "The Group." The American and British entities consist of 20-30 dynastic families each. Jewish banking interests connect them.

    "The links between 'The Order' and Britain go through Lazard Freres and the private merchant banks... 'The Group' links to the Jewish equivalent through the Rothschilds in Britain... 'The Order' in the US links to the Guggenheim, Schiff and Warburg families." (23)

    As Dr. Sutton notes, the "Order" had definite anti Semitic tendencies but by the 1960's, many Jewish names started to appear among the 15 annual inductees. See list of Skull and Bones members.

    http://www.the7thfire.com/Politics%20and%20History/skull_and_bones.htm


 

Investigations into America's Most Powerful Secret Society
Tue Sep 2 17:05:49 2003
64.140.158.45

* Everything you ever wanted to ask, but were afraid to know • Blackmarket Bones • Prescott Bush,the Union Banking Corporation and The Story • The Tomb • Man, Magic and Yale • The Skeleton Crew • RTA Incorporated • A Shill Game • What Hath Women Wrought? by Kris Millegan

Fleshing Out Skull & Bones — Investigations into America's Most Powerful Secret Society
http://www.fleshingoutskullandbones.com/

Prescott Bush, the Union Banking Corporation and The Story

Kris Millegan
©2003

“There’s three things to remember: claim everything, explain nothing, deny everything,” recalled Prescott Bush as to how politics was explained to him by Clare Booth Luce, congresswoman and wife of fellow Bonesman and magazine magnate, Henry Luce. The remarks were recorded in a 1966 interview with Prescott for an oral history project about the Eisenhower Administration by Columbia University.

The Bush political family seems to have taken those words to heart, one example being the story of Prescott’s involvement with the Union Banking Corporation and the financing of Hitler and fascism. Why there has been such a deliberate and hard cover-up of this affair is in no doubt due to its sensitive nature.

The who, what and where of this business is already covered in several of the other articles in this book. Here we will examine the story as it appears today.

The specific allegations about the Union Banking Corporation first surfaced in Antony Sutton’s 1975 book, Wall Street and the Rise of Hitler. Sutton at that time did not know about the Order of Skull & Bones. After becoming aware of the Order in 1983 he expanded his writings on the subject in How the Order Creates War and Revolution in 1984, which was later published, with Antony’s three other booklets on The Order of Skull & Bones, together as America’s Secret Establishment in 1986. The charges were articulated again in 1988 in Sutton’s The Two Faces of George Bush.

The mainstream press and establishment historians ignored Sutton’s books and the accusations.

In 1992, Webster Tarpley and Anton Chaitkin authored George Bush: The Unauthorized Biography (some chapters are presented in this book), which took the investigations further. They found in U.S. government archives the vesting order seizing the Union Banking Corporation and documented other Harriman/Bush controlled interests that were doing business with the Nazis. Their book was published by Executive Intelligence Review, a Lyndon Laurouche organization, and again the reports were ignored.

John Loftus, a former attorney for the Office of Special Operations prosecuting Nazi war criminals in the US Justice Department also added information about the situation in his 1994 book, The Secret War Against the Jews.

A Dutch producer DaniŽl De Witt, from Dutch National Television interviewed Sutton, Chaitkin, Tarpley and others in 1996, for a documentary on Skull & Bones that included confirmation from Dutch officials concerning the Union Banking Corporation and its activities in financing Hitler through a Dutch bank, the Bank voor Handel en Scheepvart ( Bank for Trade and Shipping). “Original documents of the Amsterdam based International Institute of Social History (Instituut voor Sociale Geschiedenis) clearly show the connection between the BHS, the August Thyssen Bank from Fritz Thyssen and Harrimans Union Banking Corporation.”

The show — as produced — never aired.* The show was listed in printed schedules and there was a preview in a TV guide but the program was pulled just before being a televised in 1998. Finally in January 2001, a re-edited thirty minute segment of the original eighty minute film was aired plus ten minutes of new footage of interviews of the movie, The Skulls, writer and director.

With the advent and growth of the Internet and its ability to by-pass the mainstream media editorial bottleneck there was a growing awareness of the Nazi-Bush financial connections. Newspaper reporter Michael Kranish finally made the accusations public through a mainstream press article in the Boston Globe that became the story about the charges. A front-page article headlined Triumphs, Troubles Shape Generations, ran on April 23, 2001. The story was told in first three paragraphs.


The story:
Prescott Bush was surely aghast at a sensational article the New York Herald Tribune splashed on its front page in July 1942.

“Hitler’s Angel Has 3 Million in US Bank,” read the headline above a story reporting that Adolf Hitler’s financier had stowed the fortune in Union Banking Corp., possibly to be held for “Nazi bigwigs.” Bush knew all about the New York bank: He was one of its seven directors. If the Nazi tie became known, it would be a potential “embarrassment,” Bush and his partners at Brown Brothers Harriman worried, explaining to government regulators that their position was merely an unpaid courtesy for a client. The situation grew more serious when the government seized Union’s assets under the Trading with the Enemy Act, the sort of action that could have ruined Bush’s political dreams.

As it turned out, his involvement wasn’t pursued by the press or political opponents during his Senate campaigns a decade later. But the episode may well have been one of the catalysts for a dramatic change in his life. Just as the Union Banking story broke, Bush volunteered to be chairman of United Service Organizations, putting himself on the national stage for the first time. He traveled the country raising millions of dollars to help boost the morale of US troops during World War II, enhancing his stature in a way that helped him get elected US senator. A son and grandson would become presidents.

The next fifty plus paragraphs extolled Prescott’s liberal virtues, proclaimed him to be “akin to the Kennedys” and mentions Prescott’s membership in the Yale singing group the Whiffenpoofs, but failed to inform about his membership in the Order of Skull & Bones.

Alexandra Robbins, a member of Yale’s second oldest senior secret society Scroll & Key, used the story in 2002 to deflect the charges in her faux exposť of the Order of Skull & Bones, Secrets of the Tomb:

Nor was it Skull and Bones that specifically instructed members to aid Adolf Hitler, though Hitler’s financier stowed $3 million in the Union Banking Corporation, a bank that counted among its seven directors Prescott Bush.

That’s it. That is Ms. Robbins complete comment on the subject of the Union Banking Corporation, financing of Hitler and the Order of Skull & Bones. No mention about the American Ship and Commerce Company, Consolidated Silesian Steel Corporation, Hamburg-Amerika Lines, Harriman Fifteen Corporation, Harriman International Company, Holland-American Trading Company, Steamless Steel Corporation or the Silesian-American Corporation, companies of which Brown Brothers Harriman were involved and all of which were enmeshed with Hitler’s rise to power. No mention that under the Trading with the Enemy Act many of these companies were seized and were placed at the US Office of Alien Property Custodian. No mention that the Union Banking Corporation was established in August 1924 with George Herbert Walker serving as president and working out of the offices of W. A. Harriman and Company. No mention that in 1932, four out of the eight bank directors were members of the Order of Skull & Bones. No mention that, in the fall of 1942 when Union Banking Corporation was taken over by the government, that a total of three out of seven directors were members of the Order and that a fourth director was an employee of Brown Brothers Harriman — effectively giving Brown Brothers Harriman voting control. No mention that while there were many other non-Bones personnel in partnership at Brown Brothers Harriman, none of them were directors of Union Banking, only Bones partners were on the Union Banking Corporation board. The only exception being not another partner but a Brown Brothers Harriman employee. No mention that two of the other directors have been identified as Nazis. There was no mention of published accounts such as “[a] 1934 congressional investigation alleged that Walker’s Hamburg-Amerika Line subsidized a wide-range of pro-Nazi propaganda efforts both in Germany and the United States;” or that in June of 1936 “[i]nstead of divesting of the Nazi money, [Prescott] Bush hired a lawyer to hide his assets. The lawyer he hired … was Allen Dulles.” Was it because Ms. Robbins didn’t do her homework — or was she just advancing the story?

FULL STORY:
http://www.fleshingoutskullandbones.com/


Skull And Bones
CBS News - There are secrets that George W. Bush guards at least as carefully as any entrusted to a president.

He's forbidden to share these secrets even with the vice president -- secrets he has held ever since his days as an undergraduate at Yale.

In his senior year, Mr. Bush - like his father and his grandfather - belonged to Skull and Bones, an elite secret society that includes some of the most powerful men of the 20th century.

All Bonesmen, as they're called, are forbidden to reveal what goes on in their inner sanctum, the windowless building on the Yale campus that is called "The Tomb."

There are conspiracy theorists who see Skull and Bones behind everything that goes wrong, and occasionally even right in the world.

Apart from presidents, Bones has included cabinet officers, spies, Supreme Court justices, statesmen and captains of industry - and often their sons, and lately their daughters, too.

It’s a social and political network like no other. And they've responded to outsiders with utter silence – until an enterprising Yale graduate, Alexandra Robbins, managed to penetrate the wall of silence in her book, “Secrets of the Tomb.” Correspondent Morley Safer reports. ”I spoke with about 100 members of Skull and Bones and they were members who were tired of the secrecy, and that's why they were willing to talk to me,” says Robbins. “But probably twice that number hung up on me, harassed me, or threatened me.”

Secret or not, Skull and Bones is as essential to Yale as the Whiffenpoofs, the tables down at a pub called Mory's, and the Yale mascot - that ever-slobbering bulldog.

Skull and Bones, with all its ritual and macabre relics, was founded in 1832 as a new world version of secret student societies that were common in Germany at the time. Since then, it has chosen or "tapped" only 15 senior students a year who become patriarchs when they graduate -- lifetime members of the ultimate old boys' club.

“Skull and Bones is so tiny. That's what makes this staggering,” says Robbins. “There are only 15 people a year, which means there are about 800 living members at any one time.”

But a lot of Bonesmen have gone on to positions of great power, which Robbins says is the main purpose of this secret society: to get as many members as possible into positions of power.

“They do have many individuals in influential positions,” says Robbins. “And that's why this is something that we need to know about.”

President Bush has tapped five fellow Bonesmen to join his administration. Most recently, he selected William Donaldson, Skull and Bones 1953, the head of the Securities and Exchange Commission. Like the President, he's taken the Bones oath of silence. Ron Rosenbaum, author and columnist for the New York Observer, has become obsessed with cracking that code of secrecy.

“I think there is a deep and legitimate distrust in America for power and privilege that are cloaked in secrecy. It's not supposed to be the way we do things,” says Rosenbaum. “We're supposed to do things out in the open in America. And so that any society or institution that hints that there is something hidden is, I think, a legitimate subject for investigation.”

His investigation is a 30-year obsession dating back to his days as a Yale classmate of George W. Bush. Rosenbaum, a self-described undergraduate nerd, was certainly not a contender for Bones. But he was fascinated by its weirdness.

“It's this sepulchral, tomblike, windowless, granite, sandstone bulk that you can't miss. And I lived next to it,” says Rosenbaum. “I had passed it all the time. And during the initiation rites, you could hear strange cries and whispers coming from the Skull and Bones tomb.”

Despite a lifetime of attempts to get inside, the best Rosenbaum could do was hide out on the ledge of a nearby building a few years ago to videotape a nocturnal initiation ceremony in the Tomb's courtyard.

“A woman holds a knife and pretends to slash the throat of another person lying down before them, and there's screaming and yelling at the neophytes,” he says.

Robbins says the cast of the initiation ritual is right out of Harry Potter meets Dracula: “There is a devil, a Don Quixote and a Pope who has one foot sheathed in a white monogrammed slipper resting on a stone skull. The initiates are led into the room one at a time. And once an initiate is inside, the Bonesmen shriek at him. Finally, the Bonesman is shoved to his knees in front of Don Quixote as the shrieking crowd falls silent. And Don Quixote lifts his sword and taps the Bonesman on his left shoulder and says, ‘By order of our order, I dub thee knight of Euloga.’"

It’s a lot of mumbo-jumbo, says Robbins, but it means a lot to the people who are in it.

“Prescott Bush, George W's grandfather, and a band of Bonesmen, robbed the grave of Geronimo, took the skull and some personal relics of the Apache Chief and brought them back to the tomb,” says Robbins. “There is still a glass case, Bonesmen tell me, within the tomb that displays a skull that they all refer to as Geronimo.”

“The preoccupation with bones, mortality, with coffins, lying in coffins, standing around coffins, all this sort of thing I think is designed to give them the sense that, and it's very true, life is short,” says Rosenbaum. “You can spend it, if you have a privileged background, enjoying yourself, contributing nothing, or you can spend it making a contribution.”

And plenty of Bonesmen have made a contribution, from William Howard Taft, the 27th President; Henry Luce, the founder of Time Magazine; and W. Averell Harriman, the diplomat and confidant of U.S. presidents.

“What's important about the undergraduate years of Skull and Bones, as opposed to fraternities, is that it imbues them with a kind of mission for moral leadership,” says Rosenbaum. “And it's something that they may ignore for 30 years of their life, as George W. Bush seemed to successfully ignore it for quite a long time. But he came back to it.”

Mr. Bush, like his father and grandfather before him, has refused to talk openly about Skull and Bones. But as a Bonesman, he was required to reveal his innermost secrets to his fellow Bones initiates.

“They're supposed to recount their entire sexual histories in sort of a dim, a dimly-lit cozy room. The other 14 members are sitting on plush couches, and the lights are dimmed,” says Robbins. “And there's a fire roaring. And the, this activity is supposed to last anywhere from between one to three hours.” What’s the point of this?

”I believe the point of the year in the tomb is to forge such a strong bond between these 15 new members that after they graduate, for them to betray Skull and Bones would mean they'd have to betray their fourteen closest friends,” says Robbins.

One can't help but make certain comparisons with the mafia, for example. Secret society, bonding, stakes may be a little higher in one than the other. But everybody knows everything about everybody, which is a form of protection.

“I think Skull and Bones has had slightly more success than the mafia in the sense that the leaders of the five families are all doing 100 years in jail, and the leaders of the Skull and Bones families are doing four and eight years in the White House,” says Rosenbaum.

Bones is not restricted to the Republican Party. Yet another Bonesman has his eye on the Oval Office: Senator John Kerry, Democrat, Skull & Bones 1966.

“It is fascinating isn't it? I mean, again, all the people say, ‘Oh, these societies don't matter. The Eastern Establishment is in decline.’ And you could not find two more quintessential Eastern establishment, privileged guys,” says Rosenbaum. “I remember when I was a nerdy scholarship student in the reserve book room at, at the Yale Library, and John Kerry, who at that point styled himself ‘John F. Kerry’ would walk in.”

“There was always a little buzz,” adds Rosenbaum. “Because even then he was seen to be destined for higher things. He was head of the Yale Political Union, and a tap for Skull and Bones was seen as the natural sequel to that.” David Brooks, a conservative commentator who has published a book on the social dynamics of the upwardly mobile, says that while Skull & Bones may be elite and secret, it's anything but exciting.

“My view of secret societies is they're like the first class cabin in airplanes. They're really impressive until you get into them, and then once you're there they're a little dull. So you hear all these conspiracy theories about Skull and Bones,” says Brooks.

“And to me, to be in one of these organizations, you have to have an incredibly high tolerance for tedium 'cause you're sittin' around talking, talking, and talking. You're not running the world, you're just gassing.”

Gassing or not, the best-connected white man's club in America has moved reluctantly into the 21st Century.

“Skull and Bones narrowly endorsed admitting women,” says Robbins. “The day before these women were supposed to be initiated, a group of Bonesmen, including William F. Buckley, obtained a court order to block the initiation claiming that letting women into the tomb would lead to date rape. Again more legal wrangling; finally it came down to another vote and women were admitted and initiated.”

But Skull & Bones now has women, and it’s become more multicultural.

“It has gays who got the SAT scores, it's got the gays who got the straight A's,” says Brooks. “It's got the blacks who are the president of the right associations. It's different criteria. More multicultural, but it's still an elite, selective institution.”

On balance, it may be bizarre, but on a certain perspective, does it provide something of value?

“You take these young strivers, you put them in this weird castle. They spill their guts with each other, fine. But they learn something beyond themselves. They learn a commitment to each other, they learn a commitment to the community,” says Brooks. “And maybe they inherit some of those old ideals of public service that are missing in a lot of other parts of the country.”

And is that relationship, in some cases, stronger that family or faith?

“Absolutely,” says Robbins. “You know, they say, they say the motto at Yale is, ‘For God, for country, and for Yale.’ At Bones, I would think it's ‘For Bones.'”

http://post911timeline.org/News/index.php?itemid=781


With antiwar role, high visibility
By Michael Kranish, Globe Staff, 6/17/2003


April 28, 1971, 4:33 p.m. President Richard M. Nixon takes a call from his counsel, Charles Colson.
"This fellow Kerry that they had on last week," Colson tells the president, referring to a television appearance by John F. Kerry, a leader of Vietnam Veterans Against the War.
"Yeah," Nixon responds.
"He turns out to be really quite a phony," Colson says.
"Well, he is sort of a phony, isn't he?" Nixon says.
Yes, Colson says in a gossiping vein, telling the president that Kerry stayed at the home of a Georgetown socialite while other protesters slept on the mall.
"He was in Vietnam a total of four months," Colson scoffs, without mentioning that Kerry earned three Purple Hearts, a Silver Star, and a Bronze Star, and had also been on an earlier tour. "He's politically ambitious and just looking for an issue."
"Yeah."
"He came back a hawk and became a dove when he saw the political opportunities," Colson says.
"Sure," Nixon responds. "Well, anyway, keep the faith."
The tone was sneering. But the secretly recorded dialogue illustrates just how seriously Kerry was viewed by the Nixon White House. Some of these conversations have not been previously publicized, and Kerry said he had never heard them until they were provided by a reporter.
Day after day, according to the tapes and memos, Nixon aides worried that Kerry was a unique, charismatic leader who could undermine support for the war. Other veteran protesters were easier targets, with their long hair, their use of a Viet Cong flag, and in some cases, their calls for overthrowing the US government. Kerry, by contrast, was a neat, well-spoken, highly decorated veteran who seemed to be a clone of former President John F. Kennedy, right down to the military service on a patrol boat.
The White House feared him like no other protester.
Colson, in a secret memo, revealed he had a mission to target Kerry: "Destroy the young demagogue before he becomes another Ralph Nader."
The effort by Nixon and his aides to undermine Kerry went much deeper than even Kerry realized. Yet it is this chapter in his life, as much as any other, that helped turn Kerry into a national political figure. By targeting Kerry, the Nixon White House boosted his stature in ways that still are having an impact.
But at the same time, many of the issues that Nixon and his aides raised more than 30 years ago about Kerry still remain. Echoes of Colson's words can still be heard in Washington: "He's politically ambitious and just looking for an issue, a phony."
Yet even Nixon described Kerry as an articulate and impressive spokesman. The Nixon White House began an investigation of Kerry. Who was he, the Nixonites wanted to know. What was his real motivation? And how could they stop him?

Connecting with a cause


As an antiwar leader, John Kerry was arrested with hundreds of others after protesting on the green in Lexington, Mass., on May 31, 1971. The Nixon White House identified Kerry as the movement's most effective spokesman. (AP File Photo)

John Kerry returned from Vietnam in April 1969, having won early transfer out of the conflict because of his three Purple Hearts. He asked for a cushy assignment - service as an admiral's aide - and was given precisely that job in Brooklyn. Kerry had thought about running for public office long before he had gone to Vietnam. But when he returned from the war, he wasn't greeted as a hero, like the soldiers of his father's generation. Kerry found that being a veteran could be a drawback, especially in Eastern Massachusetts, where he hoped to run for the US House.

"I just came back really concerned about it and upset about it and angry about it," Kerry said. "It took me a little while to decompress. I saw someone who said, `What happened to you? Your eyes are sunk way back in your head.' The tension and the trauma in your life took its toll."

When Kerry returned to the United States, the country's troop strength in Vietnam was at its height - 543,000. To that date, 33,400 Americans had been killed, and the number of protests was surging. But during this time, Kerry was still a naval officer and not publicly protesting the war.

It was his sister, Peggy, who was involved in the antiwar movement. One day in October 1969, Peggy Kerry was working in the New York office of a Vietnam War protest group that was planning a "moratorium" peace rally in Washington, which would draw 250,000 protesters one month later. A leader in the New York protest, Adam Walinsky, a former speechwriter for Robert F. Kennedy, said he needed a pilot and plane to take him around the state on Oct. 15. Did anyone know a pilot?

Peggy Kerry said she would provide such a volunteer: her brother.

John Kerry flew Walinsky around New York to deliver speeches against the war. Kerry did not wear his uniform and did not speak at the events, but the experience helped convince him that he wanted to become a public leader of the antiwar movement. On Jan. 3, 1970, Kerry requested that his superior, Rear Admiral Walter F. Schlech, Jr., grant him an early discharge so that he could run for Congress on an antiwar platform.

"I just said to the admiral: `I've got to get out. I've got to go do what I came back here to do, which is, end this thing,'" Kerry recalled, referring to the war. The request was approved, and Kerry was honorably discharged, which he said shaved six months from his commitment.

But for all his Vietnam heroics and patrician background, Kerry was, politically speaking, a nobody. He gave up on a three-month 1970 bid for Congress in Massachusetts' Third District, which at the time stretched from Newton to Fitchburg, when it became clear the Rev. Robert F. Drinan would instead get the Democratic Party nomination.

Some of Kerry's positions at the time sound naive in retrospect. He was quoted in The Harvard Crimson as saying he would like to "almost eliminate CIA activity" and wanted US troops "dispersed through the world only at the directive of the United Nations."
Out of the Navy and with a political failure behind him, Kerry refocused on his personal life. In May 1970, he married the woman he had been dating for more than six years, Julia Thorne, the sister of his best friend, David Thorne. Kerry, whose upper-class image was already well established due to his Forbes and Winthrop roots, had a glittering wedding.

The New York Times described it this way: "Miss Julia Stimson Thorne, whose ancestors helped to shape the American republic in its early days, and John Forbes Kerry, who wants to help steer it back from what he considers a wayward course, were married this afternoon at the 200-acre Thorne family estate" on Long Island.

The article noted that Miss Thorne's cream-colored dress had been worn by her ancestor, Catherine Peartree-Smith, who married Elias Boudinot IV, who served as president of the Continental Congress under the Articles of Confederation. "Alexander Hamilton was best man at that wedding and among those present was George Washington," the story noted.
"Whether today's wedding becomes a similar footnote to history may depend on the bridegroom, a graduate of Yale and a veteran of the Vietnam war, who is considering running for Congress from his native Massachusetts." (The article left unsaid that Kerry had just failed in that bid.)
For his honeymoon, Kerry chose a telling location: the Pershing family's Jamaica home.
Richard Pershing, a close friend of Kerry's and a fellow member of Yale's Skull and Bones society, had been killed in Vietnam. Pershing's grandfather, General John Joseph "Black Jack" Pershing, had commanded US forces in Europe during World War I.

With Julia by his side, Kerry became more active in the antiwar movement. After working behind the scenes and making a few little-noticed appearances at rallies, Kerry joined a group called Vietnam Veterans Against the War. Some thought the group was marginal; others mocked its connection to Jane Fonda, who had earned enmity by visiting North Vietnam. In January 1971, the organization held a series of hearings in Detroit called the "Winter Soldier Investigation," but Kerry did not speak at the event, which received only modest press coverage. Kerry wanted a bigger stage, and he wanted the top role.

During private conversations with other group leaders, Kerry suggested that a veterans rally be held on the Mall in Washington, an effort Kerry hoped would refute Nixon's charge that the protesters were mostly college "bums."

"It was my sense that it wasn't going to be heard unless we went to a place where the issue was joined," Kerry said. "It was my idea to come to Washington. It was my idea to do the march. I floated that idea at the Detroit meeting. We all decided to make it happen. I became the unofficial coordinator-organizer."

Some members of the antiwar group viewed Kerry as an opportunist. He hadn't testified during the Winter Soldier hearings, hadn't organized the group, yet now he was seeking to become the coordinator and spokesman. But plenty of veterans also realized Kerry - erudite and clean-cut - was the ideal foil for those who viewed the group as hippie traitors or even communists.

So Kerry became the face of the organization, and a media sensation.

The protests were set for the week of April 20. Kerry spent some of his time at the Georgetown townhouse of his longtime friend George Butler, working the phones, trying to round up veterans. But the real problem was money. Kerry, who was not financially independent despite rumors to the contrary, was supposed to raise money to pay for buses that would transport the veterans.

He called his friend Walinsky, who had run unsuccessfully for New York attorney general and had excellent financial connections. Walinsky arranged a meeting of potential donors at the Seagram Building in New York City. Among those present were Seagram chief executive Edgar M. Bronfman Sr. and about 20 other New York businessmen who opposed the war. Kerry delivered a low-key speech about the importance of having veterans attend the protest. Then the businessmen were each asked to stand and declare how much they would contribute.

"We raised probably $50,000," Walinsky recalled. "It took an hour."

Face of the antiwar movement

In Lowell, Mass., the veteran and onetime antiwar activist, watches as President Nixon announces a Vietnam cease-fire in January 1973.   

Just before the event, on April 19, 1971, Colson fired off a memo expressing exasperation that more wasn't being done to undermine the organizers. He ordered administration officials to show that Vietnam Veterans Against the War was "a fringe group, that it is financed from questionable sources, that it doesn't represent a veterans movement, and that the guys involved are a pretty shoddy bunch. . . . There just must be more that we can be doing."
At a jammed Senate Foreign Relations Committee hearing on April 22, 1971, Kerry took his case to Congress. Television cameras lined the walls, and veterans packed the seats. Kerry was dressed in his green fatigues and wore his Silver Star and Purple Heart ribbons, although he said he left the medals at home. With his thatch of dark hair swept across his brow, Kerry sat at a witness table and delivered the most famous speech of his life, the speech that defined him and made possible his political career.
"How do you ask a man to be the last man to die in Vietnam?" Kerry asked. "How do you ask a man to be the last man to die for a mistake?" Attacking the Nixon White House, he said, "This administration has done us the ultimate dishonor. They have attempted to disown us and the sacrifices we made for this country."
Almost forgotten in that famous speech were Kerry's controversial assertions that Vietnam veterans had "personally raped, cut off ears, cut off heads, taped wires from portable telephone to human genitals and turned up the power, cut off limbs, blown up bodies, randomly shot at civilians, razed villages in fashion reminiscent of Genghis Khan, shot cattle and dogs for fun, poisoned food stocks, and generally ravaged the countryside of South Vietnam in addition to the normal ravage of war, and the normal and very particular ravaging which is done by the applied bombing power of this country."
To some veterans, including some of those who served alongside Kerry, this was too much. They thought they had served honorably, and they had seen Kerry as a gung-ho skipper who led the charge and didn't voice such opposition on the battlefield.
"I would go up a river with that man anytime. He was a great American fighting man," said Michael Bernique, a highly decorated veteran who served as a swift boat skipper alongside Kerry. But Bernique remains upset with Kerry's assertion that atrocities were committed, an assertion that Kerry has not backed away from. "I think there was a point in time when John was making it up fast and quick. I think he was saying whatever he needed to say."
In the Oval Office, President Nixon delivered a backhanded compliment to Kerry, whom he distinguished from the other "bearded weirdos."
The "real star" of the hearing was Kerry, Nixon told chief of staff H. R. "Bob" Haldeman and national security adviser Henry Kissinger the day after Kerry testified, according to the secretly taped White House recordings.
"He did a hell of a great job," Haldeman said.
"He was extremely effective," Nixon agreed.
"He did a superb job on it at Foreign Relations Committee yesterday," Haldeman said. "A Kennedy-type guy, he looks like a Kennedy, and he, he talks exactly like a Kennedy."
"Where did he serve?" Nixon asked.
"He was a Navy lieutenant, j.g., on a gunboat, and he used to run his gunboat up and shoot at, shoot babies out of women's arms," Haldeman said. (A member of Kerry's crew had shot and killed a Vietnamese child in an episode that occurred in a "free-fire zone," according to Kerry, but it is not clear whether Haldeman knew about the matter or was being jocular.)
"Oh, stop that," Nixon said. "People in the Navy don't do things [like that.]" With apparent sarcasm, Nixon turned to Kissinger, who assured him a naval officer would not shoot babies out of women's arms. But there was a seriousness to the statement as well; just three weeks earlier, a jury had convicted Lieutenant William Calley of killing 22 civilians in what became known as the My Lai massacre. Just days earlier, Nixon had ordered Calley released pending his appeal. The case had been more fuel for the antiwar movement.
Nixon seemed particularly incredulous that Kerry had won so many medals. "Bob, the Navy didn't have any casualties in Vietnam except in the air," Nixon told Haldeman, showing either a disregard for the high casualty rate of swift boat sailors or an extraordinary lack of knowledge about what had really happened during the war he oversaw as commander in chief.
The White House staff decided it needed to dig up dirt on Kerry, or at least undermine his effort. Three days later, Haldeman arrived in the Oval Office and announced to the president: "We've got some interesting dope on Kerry."
Nixon was interested.
"Kerry, it turns out, some time ago decided he wanted to get into politics," Haldeman said. "Well, he ran for, took a stab at the congressional thing. And he consulted with some of the folks in the Georgetown set here. So what, what the issue, what, he'd like to get an issue. He wanted a horse to ride."
The tape recording inexplicably ends at this point.
Kerry, meanwhile, was becoming a celebrity. Overnight, he had emerged as one of the most recognized veterans in America.
Kerry, who understood well the importance that the media placed on imagery, put an exclamation mark on events by lining up with veterans to return their medals to the military on April 23. Kerry said he suggested that veterans place their medals and ribbons on a table and return them. But he said other members of the antiwar veterans group wanted to throw the medals and ribbons over a fence in front of the Capitol, and Kerry went along with the idea.
Video footage of the scene shows hundreds of veterans angrily gathering in front of the Capitol, near a fenced-in bin with the large sign saying "Trash."
One by one, the veterans, most of whom had long hair and wore combat jackets, threw their medals into the makeshift trash bin.
Some press reports say that Kerry "threw his medals." But Kerry has long maintained he threw his own ribbons but someone else's medals.
In an interview, he said that he had previously met two veterans, one from the Vietnam War and another from World War II, who had asked Kerry to return their medals to the military. Kerry said he stuffed them into his jacket.
He said that when he prepared to throw his ribbons over the fence, he reached into his jacket and pulled out the medals from those two veterans. He said his own medals remained in safekeeping.
The week's events had unquestionable impact. At the beginning of the week, a band of 800 or so Vietnam veterans gathered to protest the war, followed by Kerry's April 22 testimony, then the medal-tossing ceremony on April 23. By the following day, the publicity helped draw at least 250,000 people to the Mall in a massive protest.
Kerry, wearing a blue button-down shirt under his combat jacket, addressed the rally from the Capitol steps. "We came here to undertake one last mission, to search out and destroy the last vestige of this barbaric war," Kerry told the cheering throng.
In one week, Kerry had gone from little-known former swift boat skipper to the face of the protest movement.
"The transformation was instant," said Kerry's friend George Butler. "Eight hundred people had turned into 250,000," said Kerry's then-brother-in-law, David Thorne, who stood beside Kerry during the rally. "That is what made it so spectacular."
A national figure
 
1971 Doonesbury cartoon about John Kerry

A few weeks later, Kerry was featured in a lengthy segment on the CBS television program "60 Minutes." Correspondent Morley Safer, in a segment titled "First Hurrah," portrayed Kerry as an eloquent man of turmoil who had a Kennedyesque future.

"Do you want to be president of the United States?" Safer asked Kerry.

"No," Kerry replied. "That's such a crazy question when there are so many things to be done and I don't know whether I could do them."

But Kerry's image as a self-promoter soon became the subject of parody, none more on-target than a Doonesbury comic strip penned by fellow Yale alumnus Garry Trudeau. A character in the strip is heard urging that they all attend John Kerry's speech. "He speaks with a rare eloquence and astonishing conviction. If you see no one else this year, you must see John Kerry!"

"Who was that?" another character asks.

"John Kerry," comes the response.

Another strip shows Kerry soaking up the adulation after a speech, smiling and thinking, "You're really clicking tonight, you gorgeous preppie."

At the White House, the plotting against Kerry continued.

"The concern about Kerry was that he had great credibility as a decorated Vietnam veteran," Colson recalled in a recent interview. So Colson and his staff tried repeatedly to dig up dirt on Kerry. The effort failed.

"I don't ever remember finding anything negative about Kerry or hearing anything negative about him," Colson said. "If we had found anything, I'm sure we would have used it to discredit him."

Colson's memos, in storage at the National Archives, show that he tried mightily to discredit Kerry. On April 16, Colson noted that, "A number of tough questions have also been planted with the Vietnam Veterans Against the War questioners for `Meet the Press."'

Vice President Spiro T. Agnew briefly led the White House charge against Kerry. Appearing in the Bahamas, Agnew said that Kerry, "who drew rave notices in the media for his eloquent testimony before Congress, was later revealed to have been using material ghosted for him by a former Kennedy speechwriter, and to have spent most of his nights in posh surroundings in Georgetown rather than on the Mall with his buddies."

Both of Agnew's charges were false, according to Kerry and Walinsky, the former Kennedy aide to whom Agnew referred.

Kerry began traveling around the country to carry the antiwar flag. During Memorial Day weekend, he joined a throng of antiwar protesters on the green in Lexington, Mass., where he and hundreds of others were arrested. Kerry said the arrest, for which he paid a $5 fine and spent the night at the Lexington Public Works Garage, is the only arrest of his life. At the time, Kerry's wife, Julia, kept $100 under her pillow just in case she needed to bail out her husband on short notice.

In another iconic moment, Kerry appeared with former Beatle John Lennon at a protest in New York City.
The White House found a better way to go after Kerry. Colson had seen a press conference featuring a young Navy veteran named John O'Neill, who served in the same swift boat division as Kerry shortly after Kerry left Vietnam. O'Neill, like many swift boat veterans, was outraged at Kerry's claim of US atrocities.

In short order, O'Neill became the centerpiece of the Nixon White House strategy to undermine Kerry. O'Neill, now a Texas lawyer, stresses that he did not receive any payment from the White House and was acting on his own because he thought Kerry's statements were unconscionable lies.

For weeks, Colson had been accusing Kerry of ducking a debate with O'Neill. On June 15, Colson wrote to another White House aide: "I think we have Kerry on the run, he is beginning to take a tremendous beating in the press, but let's not let him up, let's destroy this young demagogue before he becomes another Ralph Nader. Let's try to move through as many sources as we can the fact that he has refused to meet in debate, even though he agreed to do so and announced to the press he would."

The next day, O'Neill arrived at the White House to meet with Nixon. The two men bonded; a brief "grip and grin" session turned into an hourlong meeting, with Nixon bucking up O'Neill for the fight against Kerry.

'We've got to change'

Kerry's 1971 book later became the focus of controversy because of the cover photo which showed of veterans hoisting an upside-down US flag.

Two weeks later, on June 30, the much anticipated debate took place. Kerry, who had been studying debate since he was about 14 years old, appeared with O'Neill on "The Dick Cavett Show." At 6 feet 4 inches, Kerry towered over Cavett and O'Neill. With his thick dark hair, dark blue suit, and lean features, he cut a striking figure.

O'Neill came out swinging. Visibly angry from the start, wearing a light suit, short hair, and white socks, O'Neill used words seemingly intended to taunt his opponent.

"Mr. Kerry is the type of person who lives and survives only on war-weariness and fears of the American people," O'Neill said. "This is the same little man who on nationwide television in April spoke of, quote, `crimes committed on a day-to-day basis, with the full awareness of officers at all levels of command.' Who was quoted in a prominent news magazine in May as saying, `War crimes in Vietnam are the rule, not the exception."'

Where O'Neill was red-hot, Kerry sought to look calm and intellectual, toting a hefty briefing book. He said the veterans weren't trying to tear down the country, but instead say to the country: "Here is where we went wrong, and we've got to change. What we say is, the killing can stop tomorrow."

"On the question of war crimes, it is really only with the utmost consideration that we pose this question," Kerry said. "I don't think that any man comes back to say that he raped, or to say that he burned a village, or to say that he wantonly destroyed crops or something for pleasure. I think he does it at the risk of certain kinds of punishment, at the risks of injuring his own character, which he has to live with, at the risk of the loss of family and friends as a result of it. But he does it because he believes intensely that people have got to be educated about the devastation of this war. We thought we were a moral country, yes, but we are now engaged in the most rampant bombing in the history of mankind."

Again and again, the question was asked: Did Kerry commit atrocities or see them committed by others? Kerry stuck to his script.

"I personally didn't see personal atrocities in the sense I saw somebody cut a head off or something like that," Kerry said. "However, I did take part in free-fire zones, I did take part in harassment and interdiction fire, I did take part in search-and-destroy missions in which the houses of noncombatants were burned to the ground. And all of these acts, I find out later on, are contrary to the Hague and Geneva conventions and to the laws of warfare. So in that sense, anybody who took part in those, if you carry out the application of the Nuremberg Principles, is in fact guilty. But we are not trying to find war criminals. That is not our purpose. It never has been."

O'Neill for years has declined to talk about the experience, partly because he says he became disillusioned with politics and government after the fall of Saigon in 1975.

But in a telephone interview from Texas, where he is a trial attorney, O'Neill made it clear he still harbors resentment at the way Kerry accused veterans of atrocities.

"The primary reason I got involved was I thought the charges of war crimes were irresponsible and wrong," O'Neill said. "I thought they did a real disservice to all the people that were there. I thought they were immoral."

The bitterness remains. Asked whether he agrees with the view of some observers that Kerry was forever altered by the war, O'Neill responded: "The war didn't change [Kerry]. I think he was a guy driven tremendously by ambition. I think he was that way before he went and is that way today."

Some Vietnam Veterans Against the War leaders also viewed Kerry as a power-grabbing elitist, a source of internal friction within the antiwar movement. "There was no question but that the rift existed," said Butler, who was with Kerry at the time and remains a close friend. "A wing of the VVAW were pushing so hard to the left that they were almost Maoist. Every time John did something useful like raise money or speak in front of the Foreign Relations Committee or give an interview, he was criticized for being a media whiz."

Scott Camil, a former group leader, said Kerry "was not as radical as some of the rest of us. He was a pretty straight shooter, and he came under criticism for things that weren't fair."

Still, Camil recalled that Kerry's patrician image was derided by others in the group, which was mostly composed of working-class veterans. Camil said Kerry showed up in ironed clothes, while most of the others were rumpled. Camil said a member had tried to reach Kerry by telephone and was told by someone, presumably a maid, that "Master Kerry is not at home." At the next meeting, someone hung a sign on Kerry's chair that said: "Free the Kerry Maid."

Kerry left the organization after about a year of participation and about five months after assuming a leadership role. Kerry says he quit partly to focus on a new organization that emphasized veterans' benefits; others say Kerry was forced out.

In fact, Kerry once again was thinking of running for the US House from Massachusetts. But unlike in 1970, when Kerry was barely known, the antiwar movement had turned him into a national figure and taught him how to campaign, how to organize, how to raise money, how to use the media, even how to debate on national television.

Kerry had battled the Viet Cong, the Nixon White House, and the extremes of the antiwar movement. Now all he had to do was persuade mostly working-class voters north of Boston to vote for him.

Michael Kranish can be reached by email at
kranish@globe.com 

 


George Bush, Skull & Bones and the New World Order


Saturday, 03-Mar-01 22:18:17

    207.254.7.19 writes:
    [The following is from a "white paper" written for Japanese readership. The views expressed here do not necessarily reflect the views of ParaScope or its editors]


    George Bush, Skull & Bones and the New World Order


    Paul Goldstein
    Jeffrey Steinberg

    George Bush, Skull & Bones and the New World Order

    A New American View -- International Edition White Paper

    April 1991


    TABLE OF CONTENTS



    Introduction .............................ii

    The Order of Skull & Bones.......... ......2

    Initiation and Ritual......................7

    The Spartan Model ........................10

    Henry Stimson: Master Bonesman............13

    Stimson's Kindergarten and the Cold War...16


    Vietnam: The Bonesmen's Debacle.......... 19

    Bush in Profile...........................23

    The Order's Network.......................25

    The New World Order.......................28

    The Persian Gulf War......................31

    Implications for Japan ...................34

    Bibliography..............................38

    Some Prominent Members....................39

    Selected Quotations.......................43



    Introduction

    This special report is intended to assist the Japanese audience in more fully understanding the present policies of the United States under the administration of President George Bush. It explains the thinking behind America's military adventure in the Persian Gulf and its current attitudes toward the Middle East region.

    In so doing, we provide a glimpse into the most powerful organization in America--the Order of Skull & Bones. This secret fraternity is based at Yale University in New Haven, Connecticut, where many of the leading members of the U.S. government and the American intelligence community received their formal education. The Order, as it is referred to by its members, is a bastion of White Anglo Saxon Protestant (WASP) culture, which is at the core of the American 20th century outlook.

    The reader will learn that President George Herbert Walker Bush's concept of the New World Order is an old idea, one which has its origins in the philosophy and beliefs of the secret Skull & Bones fraternity. Today in particular, this is the prevailing outlook of the U.S. government, many of whose most influential members, like the president himself, are part of the Skull & Bones network. These men seek to recreate the American imperium of the immediate post-World War II period, an era which President Bush frequently refers to as "the American Century."

    The powerful men of Skull & Bones genuinely believe that they have a strategic and moral "right" to control world affairs. Consequently, they take upon themselves the authority to crush any rivalrous threat to U.S. imperial leadership, whether by current allies, such as Japan, Germany or Great Britain, or by Cold War adversaries, like the Soviet Union. The members of the Order, due to their narrow WASP upbringing, view with particular suspicion the maneuverings of Zionist Israel and its affluent, influential lobby in the United States.

    Bush, his fellow Bonesmen and their like-thinking elitist allies in the American Establishment see themselves as New World Order warriors, an American samurai caste of sorts, whose mission is restoring American greatness. They intend to utilize the institutional networks of the U.S. government and key private agencies, such as the New York Council on Foreign Relations, to advance their purpose.

    The Skull & Bones members believe in the idea of "constructive chaos." By keeping their true policy intentions secret, by constantly sending out mixed signals on all critical policy issues, they consciously seek to sow confusion among both their nominal "friends" and "enemies" alike.

    The fulcrum for the policy of constructive chaos is, at present, the Middle East situation. Although U.S. military action in the region has for the time being subsided, America's military power will remain a critical determinant in the future of that vital zone of conflict. American military power is aimed at securing undisputed control over the vast reservoir of oil -- not at necessarily fostering any permanent alignment of local states or combinations of regional interests.

    If President George Bush and his fellow true believers are successful, the United States will be first among equals in the New World Order. This is their goal. It is also the quest of the Bonesmen of the Order of Skull & Bones -- America's warrior aristocracy.


    THE ORDER OF SKULL & BONES

    Skull & Bones was founded at Yale College in New Haven, Connecticut in 1832. It is the oldest and most prestigious of Yale's seven secret societies. Among the others are: Scroll & Key, Book & Snake, Wolf's Head, Eliahu, and Berzelius. These fraternities serve as a recruiting ground for young men destined for careers in government, law, finance and other influential sectors of American life. Skull & Bones is the elite of the elite among these secret societies. Only Scroll & Key can claim a near equal influence on American affairs over the past 160 years.

    Unlike the Greek fraternities on most other American university campuses, Skull & Bones and its similar secret societies exist exclusively at Yale. They are not part of any nationwide public association. The other elite Ivy League colleges, Harvard and Princeton have similar exclusive secret societies. Yet, even among these few universities, the secret societies of Yale -- led by Skull & Bones -- are unchallenged in their influence on American political affairs.

    According to some accounts, the Skull & Bones secret society at Yale has an underground affiliation with two other societies which were simultaneously founded at two other locations. The number "322" that appears under the skull and crossbones on the Order's emblem is believed to indicate the year of its founding -- 1832 -- and the fact that it is the second lodge within an international system. By some accounts, the lodge holding the number "1" is in Germany and the lodge numbered "3" is based at another American college.

    Since its founding, Skull & Bones has only inducted about 2,500 members. At any given time, only about 600 or so members of the Order are alive. This small number underscores the tremendous concentration of power in the hands of its members.

    If the members of Skull & Bones were to select a Hall of Fame from among their own elite ranks, some of the people whose names would almost certainly appear at the top of the list would be:


    Alphonso Taft, a founding member of the Order who served as the Secretary of War under President Rutherford B. Hayes (1876-1880).
    William Howard Taft, the only man to ever serve as both the President of and Chief Justice of the United States Supreme Court.
    Henry Lewis Stimson, partner in the Wall Street law firm of Root and Stimson, Secretary of War under President Taft (1908-1912), Governor General of the Philippines (1926-1928), Secretary of State under President Herbert Hoover (1929-1933) and Secretary of War under Presidents Franklin Delano Roosevelt and Harry S. Truman (1940-1946).
    Averell Harriman, investment banker with Brown Brothers Harriman, director of the Lend-Lease program of the U.S. State Department (1941-1942), U.S. Ambassador to the Soviet Union (1943-1946), Governor of New York, Under Secretary of State for Asia (1961-1963), and presidential secret envoy to Soviet leaders Stalin, Krushchev, Brezhnev and Andropov.
    Robert Lovett, partner in Brown Brothers Harriman, Assistant Secretary of War for Air (1941-1945), Deputy Secretary of Defense, Secretary of Defense (1950), leading member of the New York Council on Foreign Relations.
    Harold Stanley, investment banker, founder of Morgan Stanley.
    Robert A. Taft, United States Senator (1938-1950).
    Prescott Bush, investment banker and partner in Brown Brothers Harriman, United States Senator from Connecticut, father of George Herbert Walker Bush
    George Herbert Walker Bush, United States Congressman (1964-1970), Chairman of the Republican National Committee, United States Ambassador to the United Nations, first American Diplomatic Liaison to the Peoples Republic of China, Director of the Central Intelligence Ageney (1975-1977). Vice President of the United States (1980-1988), President of the United States (1988- ).
    John Thomas Daniels, agro-industrialist, founder of Archer Daniels Midland.
    Hugh Wilson, foreign service officer, Counselor to Japan (1911- 1921), U.S. Minister to Switzerland (1924-1927), Assistant Secretary of State (1937-1938). Ambassador to Germany 1938), Special Assistant to the Secretary of State (1939-1941), Office of Strategic Services (1941-1945)
    The members of the Order of Skull & Bones, true to their firm belief in "constructive confusion," have intentionally allowed a series of conflicting mythologies to spring up about the origins and history of their secret fraternity. According to one version of the Order's founding, it was an outgrowth of an earlier British or Scottish freemasonic grouping first established at All Soul's College at Oxford University in the late 17th century. Another version of the history of Skull & Bones is that it grew out of the German "nationalistic" secret .societies of the early 19th century. Still a third explanation is that Skull & Bones is an uniquely American institution which adopted some of the rituals of European freemasonry, but molded these rituals and beliefs into a new form.

    Regardless of these conflicting accounts, it can be stated with certainty that the Order was first established on the Yale campus in 1832 It was officially incorporated only in 1856 under the name Russell Trust Association. According to virtually all the available biographical data on its early members, the money required to sustain the secret order's campus affairs and its broader role in placing its members into key positions of influence upon their graduation from Yale, derived from the opium trade in the Far East. That trade was set up by the British East India Company and was flourishing by the time the Treaty of Paris was signed in 1783 ending the American War for Independence. The East India Company during this period was controlled by the Baring Brothers Bank (Toward the closing decades of the 17th century, the British House of Rothschild would supplant the Baring Brothers as the controlling financial interests in the China opium trade.

    Through the sponsorship of the Barings and also the Rothschilds, a number of leading New England families, some of whom had sided with Great Britain during the American Revolution, were brought into the opium trade as junior partners. These merchant families ran fleets of clipper ships and became in many cases fabulously wealthy as the result of their association with the British East India Company. Among these key New England merchant families were: Cabot, Coolidge, Forbes, Higginson, Sturgis, Lodge, Lowell, Perkins and Russell.

    These New England merchant families founded the United Fruit Company and the Bank of Boston. The founding families of Skull & Bones included the Russell and Perkins families, Over several generations, however, all these families heavily intermarried and became, in effect, one extended power grouping.

    William Huntington Russell incorporated Skull & Bones as the Russell Trust Association. Throughout the 20th century, the Russell Trust Association listed the New York City headquarters of Brown Brothers Harriman as its address.

    Russell was valedictorian of his class at Yale in 1833. He and his Skull & Bones comrades considered themselves to be a special elite among the merchant banking and Puritan pilgrim elite of Yale. They took the Puritan beliefs of the early New England settlers, that they were "elected by God," and pre-ordained to rule North America.

    The founding of Yale College in 1701 pre-dates the American Revolution by several generations. Many of the founders of Yale were righteous men of the Puritan heritage who devoutly believed in God and country. Some of these patriotic souls later made up the core of Benjamin Franklin's political coalition which ultimately broke with the mother country, Great Britain. Many graduates of Yale were active in the American Revolution and the founding of the United States.

    Two critics of the Order, historian Antony Sutton and investigative journalist Ron Rosenbaum (himself a Yale graduate), both concluded that Skull & Bones has degenerated since its founding and has taken on more of the occult and ritualistic trappings of the majority of European freemasonic and Illuminati secret societies. Sutton charges that the Order is secretly known among its initiates as the "Brotherhood of Death" and has become an evil instrument in the hands of America's secret power elite. Rosenbaum claims that the society's Germanic origins are inherently wicked and pre-Nazi.

    In a long 1977 article in Esquire magazine, Rosenbaum charged that the Skull & Bones building on the Yale campus houses remnants from Hitler's private collection of silver. While these stories cannot be dismissed out of hand, it must be noted that authors Rosenbaum and Sutton may be biased. As a young Jewish student at Yale, Rosenbaum was almost automatically excluded on religious grounds from the inner sanctum of the campus's secret societies. Sutton, a British-born eccentric historian, proudly admits his strong British biases, frequently citing philosopher John Stuart Mill as the spiritual mentor in his book on the Order.

    Despite the possible personal biases in these two accounts of the history of the Order of Skull & Bones, it must be acknowledged that the membership of the society has tended over generations to converge upon a small group of New England families who have intermarried and then sponsored their sons and nephews into the Order. This kind of inbreeding always tends to produce narrow-mindedness and prejudice against outsiders, which can be a serious shortcoming, particularly among individuals responsible for charting the course of a nation as powerful as the United States.

    It can be documented by comparing the family charts of the early Bonesmen that there is today a core group of no more than 20 to 30 families who form the nucleus of the Order. The majority are old-line Puritan families who came to North America in the very first wave of settlers in the 17th century. Among these prominent families are: Whitney, Lord, Phelps. Wadsworth, Allen, Bundy, Adams, Stimson, Taft, Gilman and Perkins. A second group of families in the Skull & Bones core earned fabulous fortunes during the 18th and 19th centuries and thus won a rite of passage into the New England elite, even though they were not among the earliest settlers. The leading Skull & Bones families in this second category are: Harriman, Rockefeller, Payne, Davison, Pillsbury and Weyerhauser.

    A few of the Jewish banking families who made their way from Germany to the United States during the 18th and l9th centuries were eventually granted limited access to the WASP inner sanctums. Some families, like the Schiff, Warburg, Guggenheim and Meyer families, were unofficially designated as intermediaries between the New England WASPs and their cousins in London. This was especially true after the Rothschild interests supplanted the Anglican Baring group as the most powerful financial cabal in the City of London. Some of these German Jewish families became so absorbed into the WASP or Anglican society that they eventually converted from Judaism to Protestantism and were gradually ostracized from the Jewish aristocracy.

    The WASP families, however, never saw the prominent Jewish investment banking families of America as equals. The Jews were considered politically and culturally different by the WASPs, and have never been accepted into the latter's inner circle. For the most part, these Jewish merchant bankers are viewed with suspicion and distrust by the members of the Order. Moreover, the Jewish fraternal societies, such as B'nai B'rith, were formed out of the British-based Scottish Rite Freemasonry. Their sponsors in America, the Rothschilds and the Cecil Rhodes Trust (also known as the British Round Table Group), are connected with the British Foreign Office and its secret intelligence apparatus.


    INITIATION AND RITUAL

    To be initiated into the Order of Skull & Bones, one must endure a ritual of selection called "tapping". It is conducted by 15 senior classmen of Yale University who make up the current membership of the secret society. They select 15 members of the junior class to be the Bonesmen the following year. Historically, Skull & Bones kept blacks, Jews and all other non-WASPs from its ranks. Within the last 30 years, however, token members from these groups have been occasionally selected to join. Thus, in the most recent list of initiates to the Order, there is one Yalie with a Jewish surname and even one with a Chinese name. According to author Rosenbaum, in recent years, the Order has inducted members of homosexual rights groups on the campus into its ranks.

    Among the criterion for selection -- apart from family ties to the order, which has always been an important factor -- is what is referred to by historians and members as the "Three Ordeals." These ordeals are intended to measure the prospective Bonesman's ability to "make it" in the world beyond the university campus.

    The first ordeal is boarding school. The overwhelming majority of Bonesmen, given their wealthy blueblood family pedigrees, attend one of the prestigious New England preparatory schools, i.e, private high schools. (Whereas a large number of the most elite of the Harvard University students attend Groton, a school with close ties to the Anglican-Episcopal Church, where they receive a thoroughly Anglophilic education, the preferred prep schools for the future Bonesmen are the two Puritan Calvinist-sponsored Phillips Academies.)

    The second of the ordeals is that of nature. The prospective Bonesmen are judged on their skills as outdoorsmen. Hunting in the New England countryside or, better yet, traveling to distant locations like Africa, the jungles of South America or even the American badlands of the Plains states, is a prerequisite for admission to the Spartan elite ranks of the Order.

    The third of the ordeals is war. The experience of combat during wartime is considered to be of special significance for the Bonesmen, who see themselves as the elite of the New England WASP warrior caste. Many Yale Bonesmen of President George Bush's generation, as the result of the outbreak of World War II, went directly from prep school into the military service prior to their entering Yale. For a majority of Bonesmen, the preferred military service has historically been with the U.S. Navy. During World II the Naval air corp was a particularly important track for future Bones initiates. In peacetime, participation at Yale in military officer's training is desirable but not essential. The commitment to enter some branch of the military upon graduation is viewed with favor.

    After the formal selection of the next group of prospective Bonesmen, there is an invitation followed by a formal initiation ceremony. First the 15 senior class members who are the members of the Order select a group of junior class members who are to be "tapped" for Skull & Bones. A group of Bonesmen proceed to the dormitory room of the "tappee." Upon reaching the door, they pound loudly. When the prospective member opens the door, a Bonesman will tap him on the shoulder and yell, "Skull and Bones: Do you accept?" If the candidate accepts, a message wrapped with a black ribbon sealed by black wax with the skull and crossbones emblem and the mystical Bones number 322 is handed to the "tappee." The message appoints a time and a place for the candidate to appear on initiation night. Candidates are instructed to wear no metal objects or clothing.

    According to a 1940 Skull & Bones document, the initiation ceremony involves the following kinds of things: "New man placed in coffin -- carried into central part of building. New man chanted over and reborn into society. Removed from coffin and given robes with symbols on it. A bone with his name on it is tossed into the bone heap at the start of every meeting."

    Within the Skull & Bones Crypt, also known as "the Tomb," there is what is referred to as a "sacred room" with the number 322, On the arched wall about the vault entrance is inscribed in German: "Who was the fool, who was the wise man, beggar or king? Whether poor or rich, all's the same in death."

    This quotation from a German Freemasonic ritual remains a source of controversy surrounding the origins of Skull & Bones. It is one of the bits of "evidence" cited by some of the Order's most ardent critics that the group is "Nazi like" and singularly "Germanic". In fact, the rituals of the Order are very much like the rituals employed by Scottish and English freemasonic lodges.

    Some of the mystery and confusion surrounding these occult symbols and rituals is intentionally fostered by the Order itself. Among the principles taught to the members of the Yale secret society are the value of ambiguity and secrecy. These values are not taught as part of a purely mystical or occult quasi-religion. They are taught as valuable tools to be applied by the Bonesmen when they leave the insulated environment of the Yale campus and become officials of government, the intelligence community, the military or the private sector.

    A careful study of the often confusing and self-contradictory behavior and public statements of President Bush and his closest advisers throughout the months of the Persian Gulf crisis of last year and war that followed offers a valuable example of how ambiguity and secrecy are applied by Bonesmen.

    For the initiates of the Order, the question of whether secrecy and ambiguity are used for the purpose of accomplishing "good" or "evil" is of secondary importance. Secrecy and ambiguity are essential instruments for wielding power. The effective wielding of power is one of the overarching goals of all Bonesmen. The secret ties built up during the Bonesmen's senior year of active membership in the Order are maintained for life. Those ties link each Bonesman to every other initiate, especially to those initiates who were members of the Order in the same year.

    Thus, every member of Skull & Bones is, in real and practical terms, part of a small elite group of young Yale graduates -- most from wealthy and powerful WASP families -- who enter the world of politics, business, finance, intelligence or education and who proceed to make their mark on the world.

    According to several sources, President George Bush to this day frequently consults with several of his fellow Yale Bonesmen, and has, on occasion, called upon Skull & Bones members to carry out secret diplomatic missions for the White House.


    THE SPARTAN MODEL

    These rites of passage into the upper ranks of the WASP Establishment are capped by the experience the Bonesmen go through in their final year at Yale -- the year in which they actively participate in the Order. For the vast majority of the initiates, the process of inculcation with the ideas of WASP supremacy, an American Calvinist version of what British imperialist writer Rudyard Kipling called the "White Man's Burden," began at prep school.

    According to the biographical accounts of a number of the leading Bonesmen, the prep school experience is paramount. At prep school, intellectual pursuits are encouraged, but special emphasis is also placed on athletic performance. Future Yale Bonesmen are expected to excel in some team sport, such as baseball and football, both American inventions. (Members of Skull & Bones were involved in the development of both games.) Team sports supposedly prepare the future Bonesman to accept leadership responsibility, and more importantly, teach him to "respect the rules of the game."

    According to one biographer, when George Bush was a Yale undergraduate he was a member of the university baseball team. Although he was apparently not a very good baseball player, he eventually became captain of the Yale team. One day during the Yale baseball season, he excitedly visited his mother to proudly proclaim that he had hit his first home run. She reportedly looked back at him with patrician coolness, and asked, "Yes, George, but did your team win the game?"

    The particular emphasis on team sports during the prep school and Yale years is, according to several historians, part of the Spartan training that is so essential to the Skull & Bones philosophy. In the world of Skull & Bones, one of the greatest virtues is the ability to steer the nation into war and to successfully prosecute the war.

    To the Bonesmen, the use of military power is a natural and essential corollary to political power. The Bonesmen are taught that, although ideas have their place, to truly transform history, military force is almost always required. Critics of the Order have pointed out that this philosophy of power and the imperial use of military force comes straight from the chronicles of the Roman Empire -- especially the Roman Empire during its phase of decline and collapse.

    The criticism may prove to be most prophetically true of the current generation of Bonesmen who are leading the United States under the presidency of George Bush. During the final phase of the Roman Empire, legions were deployed out around the world to conquer and subjugate vast territories, while back in Rome, there was a breakdown, a crisis in which the entire social and cultural fabric of the early Roman republic was eroding and giving way to something akin to the drug, rock-sex counterculture of today. The Roman imperial policy of attempting to gloss over the decadence at home by engaging in constant wars of expansion led ultimately to the total collapse of Rome.

    In this regard, the Spartan-Roman imperial outlook of the American WASP warrior caste, exemplified by Skull & Bones, cannot be precisely compared to the Japanese samurai code of Bushido. The Japanese Bushido code emphasized honor among the warriors and presumed a fundamentally moral or ethical vision of the world.

    No such emphasis on morality and honor exists in the code of Skull & Bones. On the contrary, the Skull & Bones philosophy, according to several of its most astute critics and historians, emphasizes the "double-cross system." The "double-cross" is symbolically represented by the crossbones on the emblem of the Order. According to this philosophy, anyone who is not an initiate is inferior, and can be lied to and manipulated to further the power of the WASP Establishment. To the extent that Japanese leaders view their American WASP counterparts as men of honor whose word is sacred and whose intentions are presumed to be virtuous, they will miss the fundamental character of the American imperium. This is of special importance today, with a leading member of the Skull & Bones system occupying the White House.

    Skull & Bones philosophy first manifested itself at the American national political level in the late l9th century. At that time, the men of the Order adopted all the critical features of the British imperial system, especially the belief in the Anglo Saxon God-given right to rule over all the other races. Even countries like Japan, which were never colonial possessions of the Anglo-American combination, were viewed as inferior nations to be treated no differently from the colonies in Africa, India or Latin America.

    In 1898, President William McKinley, one of the last of the American presidents to manifest any of the early republican (anti-British imperialism) traditions of the Founding Fathers, was under enormous pressure from the Skull & Bones-led American imperialists. Eventually, he went to war against Spain to "free" Cuba and seize the Philippines. This was the first time that the United States entered a war through devious manipulation and purely in order to expand its territories. It marked the beginning of a new epoch in American history which would forever alter the vision of the United States. It was the first evidence that the men of the Order were at the helm of the ship of state.

    President McKinley's capitulation to the WASP warriors would prove to be fatal to himself and, some would say, for his country, too. The Spanish-American War of 1898 catapulted the Skull & Bones crowd into a position of dominance within the Republican Party. At the 1900 party presidential nominating convention, McKinley was forced to accept Teddy Roosevelt as his vice presidential running mate. The McKinley-Roosevelt slate was swept into office, in part as the result of the jingoist climate built up by the just-concluded Spanish-American War. Those circumstances were not all that different from the mood that prevails in America in the aftermath of the Gulf War of 1991.

    Within months of his inauguration of 1901, President McKinley was assassinated by an anarchist while traveling through Buffalo, New York. Thus, Teddy Roosevelt became president, and the Order of Skull & Bones for the first time moved into the White House. Roosevelt surrounded himself with Bonesmen. His successor in 1908, William Howard Taft, was himself a second generation member of Skull & Bones.


    HENRY STIMSON: MASTER BONESMAN

    According to a January 1991 article by the Washington syndicated columnists Rowland Evans and Robert Novak, when President George Bush was making his final decision to use military force to crush Saddam Hussein and decimate Iraq, he spent most of the Christmas holidays closeted at Camp David reading a newly published biography of one of his true heroes, fellow Skull & Bones initiate Henry Stimson. While most White House advisers thought that the gulf crisis would be ultimately resolved through diplomacy, unbeknownst to them, President Bush had already decided on the use of devastating military force -- regardless of what measures the world community or the Iraqi leaders took to avert war. Intimate Bush advisers described the president as being in a "mesmerized" state of mind as he walked around the presidential retreat in the Maryland mountains with his Stimson biography, "The Colonel: The Life and Wars of Henry Stimson," under his arm at all times.

    Indeed, for most contemporary Bonesmen, Henry Lewis Stimson, the quintessential WASP warrior, was the very personification of the Order's full ascent to power during the period of World War II.

    A member of the Order's class of 1888, Stimson served seven U.S. presidents: Theodore Roosevelt, William Howard Taft (a fellow Bonesman), Woodrow Wilson, Calvin Coolidge, Herbert Hoover, Franklin Delano Roosevelt and Harry S Truman. As the Secretary of War under FDR and Truman, Stimson oversaw the Manhattan Project, which developed the atomic bomb. Stimson personally decided on the use of that devastating weapon against the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Years earlier, as the chairman of the American delegation at the London Naval Conference and as Secretary of State under President Hoover (1929-1933), Stimson had played a pivotal role in restricting the size of the Japanese Imperial Navy. He would be an architect of the FDR 's administration's economic provocations against Japan which ultimately helped induce Japan into the attack at Pearl Harbor, thus bringing the United States formally into World War II. And Stimson was also ultimately responsible for the FDR administration's decision to intern the Nisei (Japanese-Americans) after Pearl Harbor.

    Yet, it was also Stimson who ordered American bombers to refrain from attacking the old Japanese imperial capital of Kyoto, a city rich in religious and historical tradition and artifacts. And, according to at least one of Stimson's biographers, it was also "the Colonel" who decided at the close of the war that the Japanese emperor should not be deposed. His sensitivity to Japanese culture and the importance of allowing Japan to retain honor even in defeat is widely to his close adviser, Joseph Grew, a longtime U.S. ambassador to Japan and an accomplished historian. Whether this report of Stimson's involvement in the decision to maintain the emperor is accurate or whether it underplays the role of Gen. Douglas MacArthur, the fact remains certain that Stimson was the key policymaker overseeing the postwar occupations of both Japan and Germany.

    To fully understand President George Bush's attitudes and policies toward Japan, one must first appreciate the overarching influence that Stimson had on the current occupant of the White House.

    According to his British biographer Geofrey Hodgson, Stimson's membership in Skull & Bones was "the most important educational experience in his life." Unlike most of his fellow Bonesmen, Stimson earned his membership solely on the basis of his achievements at Yale -- not through family money. His parents were not wealthy, although his forefathers did come to America as early Puritan colonists. But Stimson made up for his lack of financial credentials by his fierce competitive spirit. As he himself put it, the "idea of a struggle for prizes, so to speak, has always been one of the fundamental elements of my mind, and I can hardly conceive of what my feelings would be if I ever was put in a position or situation in life where there are no prizes to struggle for."

    Although Stimson did not come from classic blueblood background, he married into wealth and power. His wife, Mabel White, came from a prominent Establishment family with longstanding ties to the Order. Thus, upon graduation from law school, Stimson became a partner in the law firm of Eliahu Root, President Theodore Roosevelt's Secretary of War.

    Although Stimson and Roosevelt would have a falling out in later years, early on Roosevelt and Root provided "the Colonel" with the critical sponsorship and training required to succeed in the world of Establishment politics. According to Stimson's biographers, Roosevelt would frequently taunt the young Bonesman about the fact that he, unlike the president, had never been in the military or fought in any wars. (Roosevelt had resigned as Under Secretary of the Navy to go off and fight in the Spanish-American War.) Thus, at the ripe old age of 44, Stimson joined the Army during World War I and served in the American Expeditionary Force in Europe.

    Among the other lasting interests that Roosevelt would pass on to Stimson was his deep passion for the Pacific. Roosevelt was convinced that America's imperial destiny was dependent upon its domination of the Pacific Ocean and the Far East. The Spanish-American War, which marked the beginning of America's imperial phase -- and the virtual abandonment of the republican principles upon which the nation had been founded -- began the U.S. colonial occupation of the Philippines, which would continue through half of the next century. Ultimately, Stimson would himself serve as the American Governor General of the islands.

    In 1900, Roosevelt wrote to Stimson: "Our people are neither craven nor weaklings, as we face the future high of heart and confident of soul, eager to do the great work of a great power... wish to see the United States the dominant power on the Pacific Ocean."


    STIMSON'S KINDERGARTEN AND THE COLD WAR

    Henry Stimson's towering influence on George Bush and many other current members and like-thinking allies of the Order was based not only on "the Colonel's" lifetime of achievements. It was also rooted in the fact that Stimson used the World War II period to groom a successor generation of young WASP warriors who would dominate American policymaking during the Cold War and beyond. Although not every member of what came to be known as the "Stimson's Kindergarten" was a member of Skull & Bones, or even a Yale graduate, many were. All were inculcated with the Skull & Bones philosophy and methodology of wielding power. It is through this alliance and patronage system that the influence of the Order has been extended far beyond its small membership roster.

    Among the leading members of the "Stimson Kindergarten" were:


    John J. McCloy, who was Assistant Secretary of War and later served as the High Commissioner for Germany during the postwar occupation.
    Robert Lovett, a member of Skull & Bones and a partner in the Order's preeminent Wall Street investment house Brown Brothers Harriman. He became Stimson's Assistant Secretary of War (Air Section). Lovett remained an influential policymaker through the presidency of John F. Kennedy.
    Harvey Bundy, another Bonesman, who became Stimson's special assistant at the War Department. Harvey Bundy's two sons, McGeorge and William, fresh out of Yale University and Skull & Bones, joined their father on Stimson's personal staff. McGeorge Bundy would co-author Stimson's memoirs In Active Service in Peace and War.
    Dean Acheson, Assistant Secretary of State, Yale graduate (he was not a member of the Order, but, rather, of one of the other Yale secret societies, Scroll Key) and senior policy adviser to FDR and Truman, who ultimately made him Secretary of State.
    Gen. George C. Marshall, Chief of Staff of the armed forces during World War II and later Truman's Secretary of State.
    This group of high-powered policymakers of World War II and immediate post war period were known as the "Stimson-Marshall-Acheson Circle." They shaped America's Cold War containment policy against the Soviet Union and Communist China, including the involvement of the United States in the Korean War. It was also this group which, for better or worse, directed the postwar reconstruction programs in Germany and Japan.

    Another influential member of Skull & Bones, Averell Harriman, was personally responsible for the sacking of Gen. Douglas MacArthur. It was Harriman, a banker, intriguer and former American Ambassador to Moscow, who convinced President Truman to fire MacArthur.

    The predominant role that Averell Harriman would play over the course of 40 years of postwar American policymaking underscores the fact that not all leading members of Skull & Bones share the identical policy outlook. While some members of the Stimson inner circle were critical of Harriman, whom they considered to be too personally ambitious (he was also a liberal imperial Democrat in a secret fraternity dominated historically by moderate Republicans), Harriman nevertheless stands out as one of the Order's most active figures. The fact that he was a business partner and social intimate throughout his adult life of fellow Bonesman and Republican Sen. Prescott Bush Sr., the father of the current president underscores that point.

    Henry Stimson died in 1950, leaving behind a core group of political offspring led by members of his old secret society, Skull & Bones. In the final years of his life he was involved in helping to shape a number of postwar government agencies which would become bastions of power and influence for the Order for years to come. Through this active role in shaping the key institutions of the Cold War era, Stimson was able to establish a continuity of power that would more than compensate for the fact that no single figure among his "kindergarten" emerged as a clear successor, and that several, like McGeorge Bundy, would prove ultimately to be rather disappointing students.

    The National Security Act of 1947 transformed Stimson's old War Department into the Department of Defense, a sprawling civilian bureaucracy which would in future years house many of the most important members of the Order. Robert Lovett, for example, would become the Secretary of Defense in 1950. The 1947 act also established the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) as the permanent successor to the wartime Office of Strategic Services (OSS). In the early 1950s, the State Department's Office of Policy Coordination was merged into the CIA, giving the secret agency total control of America's clandestine operations. The National Security Agency (NSA) also was established, under the direction of the Department of Defense, vastly expanding America's signal intelligence capability.

    Of all these agencies of the Cold War era, the CIA would stand out as a singular power center for Yale University alumni in general and Skull & Bones initiates in particular. The term "spooks," the well-known CIA term for a clandestine operator, was originally Yale campus argot for a secret society member. According to a recently published article in the Covert Action Information Bulletin, there is reportedly a "Bones club" within the CIA which helps promote the intelligence careers of members of the Yale secret society.

    It should be pointed out that bureaucratic standing is not a real measure of power within the CIA. Very often, individuals in relatively insignificant positions within the organizational chart wield tremendous clout and maintain access to the most sensitive information and policy. Thus, for example, the present U.S. Ambassador to Beijing, James Lilley, a member of Skull & Bones and a career CIA man, is being suggested to replace William Webster as Director of Central Intelligence. For Lilley to step in as director of CIA would at this moment represent a demotion for the senior field operator. It is, however, a demotion he might accept as a personal favor to fellow Bonesman and longtime intimate pal George Bush.

    The predominance of Yale graduates inside the CIA is also a part of the Stimson legacy. During World War II, many Yale students and even several leading faculty members entered the OSS. The X-2 Branch of OSS, the counterintelligence unit, was dominated by Yale students, as well as Yale English Literature professor Norman Holmes Pearson. One of the Yale men in X-2, James Jesus Angleton, went on to a legendary career as director of the CIA's counterintelligence staff.

    Yale Skull & Bonesman and Stimson "Kindergartener" William Bundy assumed a senior post at CIA during the 1950s, as did Yale graduates Richard Bissell and Cord Meyer and Yale professor Sherman Kent.


    VIETNAM: THE BONESMEN'S DEBACLE

    According to author David Halberstam's best-selling critique of the Kennedy years, "The Best and the Brightest," the JFK presidency marked the high point of Skull & Bones postwar power. But it also marked the beginning of the secret fraternity's fall from the position of unchallenged power, and the beginning of America's precipitous decline as a world power. All these factors are summed up in one word: Vietnam.

    John Fitzgerald Kennedy's Cabinet was largely handpicked by Skull & Bones elder statesman Robert Lovett, who was personally approached by Joseph Kennedy, the president's father, and asked to shape the direction of the new administration. Lovett had been one of the architects of the World War II industrial mobilization under President Franklin Roosevelt, which helped bring the United States out of the Great Depression. He had been a factional opponent of Averell Harriman within the Skull & Bones circles, initially opposing the Cold War containment doctrine and pushing the idea of Atoms for Peace during the early years of the Eisenhower presidency (l952-1960).

    Kennedy had personally asked Lovett to join his Cabinet, but Lovett, a partner in Brown Brothers Harriman, preferred to shun formal government service. Instead, he placed a number of younger Bonesmen into the critical posts. McGeorge Bundy was appointed Kennedy's National Security Adviser. Averell Harriman was made Under Secretary of State for Asian Affairs, a position that placed him in charge of many of the most critical decisions along the way to disaster in Vietnam. William Bundy remained in a senior post at CIA.

    The decision to escalate the American military involvement in Vietnam -- a rejection of Gen. Douglas MacArthur's prophetic warning that the United States should never engage in a ground war in Asia -- was made by members of the Order. According to some accounts, President Kennedy began to have serious second thoughts about escalating the war, particularly after several private Oval Office discussions with MacArthur.

    With Kennedy's assassination, American soldiers began pouring into Southeast Asia. Harriman remained a fixture of Vietnam policy under President Lyndon Baines Johnson. McGeorge Bundy remained on as LBJ's National Security Adviser untill , when he left government service to assume the presidency of the Ford Foundation, the largest tax-exempt philanthropic agency in the United States. The Ford Foundation annually dispenses of nearly $3 billion in grants.

    In his capacity as president of the Ford Foundation, Bundy helped finance the anti-Vietnam War movement. The National Student Mobilization Committee, the umbrella group for the entire New Left of the late 1960s and early 1970s, was led by David Dellinger, a Yale graduate. Episcopal Church activist William Sloan Coffin, a Bonesman, a second leading figure in the anti-war protest movement, had previously served as a CIA officer.

    Thus, the Order had its hands in two critical elements of the policy debacle of the second half of the 1960s. Some leading Bonesmen helped shape the disastrous limited war strategy in Vietnam, while other members of the Order, at least tacitly, contributed to the growth of the drug-rock-sex counterculture by nourishing the New Left soil from which it sprang.

    As a result of the Vietnam debacle, the "Stimson Kindergarten" literally drove itself out of the corridors of power which it had occupied without challenge for the previous 20 years. With the election of Richard Nixon as president of the United States in November 1968, a different team came into prominence. The politics of that team were personified by Henry A. Kissinger, Nixon's National Security Adviser and Secretary of State.

    In a May 1982 speech in London at the Chatham House headquarters of the Royal Institute for International Affairs, Kissinger boasted that he was an enthusiastic follower of the late British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, and that throughout his years in senior government posts under Presidents Nixon and Gerald Ford (1974-1976), he had always consulted more frequently with his counterparts in the British Foreign Office than he had with officials of his own government.

    Although Kissinger had enjoyed early patronage from McGeorge Bundy, when the Bonesman was Dean of Harvard University and Kennedy's NSC adviser, the Kissinger era marked a low point in Skull & Bones' government power. The Central Intelligence Agency, a hub of the Order's clout, was decimated by scandals that only compounded the damage done to the Agency as the result of its role in the Vietnam disaster.

    According to some respected writers, for example, Jim Hougan, author of "Secret Agenda," the CIA attempted to reverse the route by helping to bring down Richard Nixon in Watergate. There is significant evidence to bolster some of these accounts.

    When Gerald Ford became president in August 1974 following Nixon's resignation, Skull & Bones made a brief comeback. In what came to be known as the "Saturday Night Massacre," Ford, in the autumn of 1975, removed Henry Kissinger from his post as NSC Adviser, replacing him with Gen. Brent Scowcroft. Kissinger ally James Schlesinger was fired as Secretary of Defense and replaced by Donald Rumsfeld. And CIA Director William Colby, who had dueled with Angleton, was fired and replaced by Skull & Bones member George Bush.

    If these maneuvers were intended to be the first step in a more ambitious comeback by the WASP warrior faction, the plan was short-circuited with the election in November 1976 of Jimmy Carter as president. It would really not be until the inauguration of George Bush as president in January 1989 -- a dozen years later -- that Skull & Bones would resurface with the same degree of governmental power that it had enjoyed during the Stimson years. George Bush's selection as Ronald Reagan's vice presidential running mate in the 1980 and 1984 elections was the transition back to that power.

    Many things had gone wrong in the years since Vietnam to drive the Bonesmen off the center stage. With more than a little input from Bonesmen like McGeorge Bundy and Averell Harriman, the United States had gone into a period of scientific, technological and industrial retreat. The Nixon decision on August 15, 1971 to remove the dollar from a fixed, gold-backed exchange rate system, had triggered a move toward double-digit inflation, urban decay, rising unemployment and soaring interest rates. The Kissinger-orchestrated Iranian-Middle East oil crisis in the early 1970s had contributed to a rate of deindustrialization that ultimately transformed the United State from the biggest creditor nation in the world to the world's biggest debtor nation. According to estimates compiled around the time of George Bush's inauguration as president, the total U.S. internal indebtedness had skyrocketed to more than $12 trillion.

    Moreover, the period of the 1970s and 1980s had given rise to a new and powerful political-financial combination demanding a share of government clout. This new grouping, with its principle power bases in the U.S. Congress, in Hollywood and on Wall Street, was known as the Zionist lobby.

    Although Jewish names had been prominent in the legal profession and on Wall Street since the founding of the American republic, in the aftermath of the 1967 Six-Day War between Israel and her Arab neighbors, Zionist power took on a whole different proportion. Again, Henry Kissinger's position in the Nixon administration symbolized the fact that the pro-Israel lobby had moved in with a vengeance to the corridors of power in the nation's capital. Even on Wall Street the 1970s and 1980s had seen a new generation of Jewish financiers come into power, replacing their more cultured and Anglicized predecessors. The WASP Establishment had developed a tolerance of and working relationship with the largely German Jewish bankers known among themselves as "Our Crowd." The new upstart Wall Street Zionists, however, were viewed by the WASPs as a collection of gangsters.

    If the Skull & Bonesmen needed a legitimate justification for reviving their ever-present dislike of the East European Ashkenazic Jews, the Wall Street Zionists who became known as the so-called "New Crowd" provided them with all the excuses necessary. When Jonathan Jay Pollard, a Naval intelligence analyst, was arrested in November 1985 and charged with spying for Israel against the United States, there was a resurgence of more unabashed antisemitism among the Bonesmen and their blueblood upperclass mates. It has since become a hallmark of the Bush White House. Even when practical political affairs have demanded that the Bush administration deal with the American Zionist lobby or the right-wing Shamir government of Israel, there has been a distinctive undertone of distrust bordering on overt hostility.


    BUSH IN PROFILE

    Unlike Averell Harriman, who reportedly coveted personal political power and drew sharp criticism from some of his fellow Bonesmen, George Bush has been a long-term "project" of Skull & Bones. The Bush presidency in real and symbolic terms represents the effort by the Order to restore the lost spirit of the WASP warrior Henry Stimson. With the passage of time and the decay of the WASP elite, the Bush presidency may yet prove to be a tragic replay of past American dreams.

    George Bush's career was sponsored every step of the way by Skull & Bones members, mostly of his father's generation. Prescott Bush (Skull & Bones Class of 1917), a Brown Brothers Harriman partner who would serve one term in Congress as senator from Connecticut, sent George to the traditional private preparatory school, Phillips Academy in Andover, New Hampshire, which grooms young New England squires for later studies at Yale.

    It was while finishing his prep school training at Andover that Bush was first exposed to Henry Stimson. Reportedly, Stimson delivered a stirring patriotic speech to the Phillips student body in l940 arguing forcefully for American intervention in the war in Europe. Ironically, at that very moment on the Yale campus, the majority of Skull & Bonesmen were leading the America First movement, which opposed any such U.S. entanglement in Europe.

    When war with Japan broke out a year later, George Bush enlisted in the Navy and was trained as a pilot. He flew more than 50 missions before being shot down in the Pacific. At Yale after the war, Bush captained the baseball team and followed his father's footsteps into the Order.

    Political legends have it that George Bush shunned his family's patronage and went off on his own to launch a business career as an oil wildcatter, or speculator, in Texas. Nothing could be farther from the truth. Bush moved to Texas to work for Dresser Industries selling oil drilling equipment. The job was arranged for him by his father with Dresser president Neil Mallon, who was a fellow member of Skull & Bones. Desser, according to several sources, had close ties with the CIA.

    After a few years with Dresser, George Bush set up his own company, Zapata Oil, to explore new oil fields in Texas and Mexico. Again, Bush was heavily backed by member of his family. Uncle George Herbert Walker, also a Skull & Bonesman, put up a large amount of capital, as did Brown Brothers Harriman. Lazard Brothers, a Jewish brokerage house with longstanding friendly ties to the New England WASPs, put up some money as well, at the urging of Andre Meyer, the owner of the Washington Post Corporation and the father of the current Post publisher Kathanne Graham. Zapata Oil sunk the first offshore well for the Kuwaiti government.

    Even with that kind of backing, George Bush was less than a success as a businessman. In 1964, a longtime Bush friend, William Farrish III of Scotland, bought the majority of shares in Zapata for $3.2 million to keep the business afloat, while George, in a major career shift, ran for U.S. Congress from a wealthy district in Houston, Texas. He won.

    During his three terms in Congress (Bush lost the 1970 Senate race to Lloyd Bentsen), George Bush distinguished himself as an advocate of zero population growth and a defender of the eugenics movement. Both of these positions, radical for their day, were probably the result of Bush's close friendship with William Draper Jr. -- a fellow Bonesman and a longtime advocate of population reduction schemes in the Third World.

    The 1970s were for George Bush years of grooming in high-level politics and foreign policy. During the Nixon re-election campaign of 1972, George Bush was the chairman of the Republican National Committee. He later joined the chorus calling for Nixon's resignation. After a tour as the U.S. Ambassador to the United Nations, Bush was sent off to Communist China as the Chief Liaison Officer prior to the formalization of diplomatic relations. Bush shared the Beijing experience with Winston Lord, a fellow Skull & Bones member who was the CIA station chief. Lord went on to become president of the New York Council on Foreign Relations (CFR) in 1983. (The Lord family founded the city of Hartford, Connecticut, has a large number of Skull & Bones members on its family tree, and set up one of the most powerful old-line Wall Street law firms, Lord Day Lord.) In 1975, George Bush completed his "grooming" with a brief stint as Gerald Ford's CIA director.

    In 1980, Bush ran a short-lived campaign against Ronald Reagan for the Republican Party's presidential nomination. Future running mate Reagan cut short Bush's 1980 presidential hopes by defeating him soundly in the primary election in New Hampshire, in the heart of New England. Reagan blasted Bush for his membership in the internationalist Trilateral Commission, which had attained notoriety because 20 members of the unpopular Carter administration had served on the commission. Bush's campaign was otherwise noteworthy because a significant number of his campaign volunteers were CIA officials; his campaign organization was directed by six top Agency and Pentagon retirees.


    THE ORDER'S NETWORK

    With Bush in the White House, the WASP Establishment is seeking to re-conquer lost territory, not only within the domain of national politics, but within the financial community, the legal profession and big business. A struggle between some elements of the WASP crowd and the Jewish "New Crowd" on Wall Street has been playing out in the newspapers and federal courts for the past six years, beginning with the criminal indictments of junk bond dealers Ivan Boesky and Michael Milken and the bankrupting and criminal prosecuting of the powerful Zionist-run brokerage house Drexel Rurnham Lambert.

    To some extent these wars reflect the kind of scramble that always takes place during a financial crisis and shakeout, when certain formerly powerful financial institutions are wiped out and others profit from their rivals' adversity. During the Great Depression of the 1930s, the House of Morgan came out on top. Not coincidentally, Morgan Guaranty Trust and Morgan Stanley have been cornerstones of the Skull & Bones grouping on Wall Street since their founding during the last century. Founding partner Harold Stanley was a Bonesman.

    One hub of the Order's postwar economic power, the major multinational oil corporations, have clearly benefited greatly from President Bush's "charming little colonial war" in the Persian Gulf. The leading oil companies which are linked to the Order are: Standard Oil Trust Corporation, Shell Oil of America, Creole Petroleum Corporation and Pennzoil Corporation. The founder and present chairman of the board of Pennzoil started out in the oil business in partnership with George Bush in Zapata Oil. It is interesting to note in the context of the Bonesmen's deep involvement in the world petroleum business that George Bush, during his early days as a Texas oilman, had worked closely with the Kuwaitis.

    Eight major Wall Street and Washington, D.C. law firms stand out as practically wholly-owned subsidiaries of the Order of Skull & Bones. Each of these firms was founded by members of the Order, and each of these firms continues to provide up-and-coming Order initiates in the legal community with training, credentials and connections. A review of the major corporate clients of these firms would reveal many of the most powerful companies among the Fortune 500.

    The Skull & Bones law firms are:


    Lord Day Lord
    Davis Polk Wardwell
    Simpson Thacher Bartlett
    Debevoise Plimpton Lyons & Gates
    Cravath Swaine & Moore
    Covington & Burling
    Dewey Ballantine Palmer & Woods
    Milbank Tweed Hadley & McCloy.


    In addition to their corporate clientele and their direct involvement in government through the frequent appointment of partners to Cabinet posts, these firms also specialize in handling the personal financial affairs and investment portfolios of the leading WASP families. In this respect, the Skull & Bones-centered WASP Establishment imitates the Venetian model. During the height of power of Venice, which was the trading capital of the Byzantine Empire, the leading families used their personal wealth to establish insurance companies, family funds and cultural programs through which they extended their political power.

    Today, the prominent law firms listed above play a special role in directing the affairs of the leading tax-exempt foundations which shape the culture and public opinion of the United States and many foreign countries. We have already seen that McGeorge Bundy, a leading Bonesman, left his position as National Security Adviser to President Lyndon Johnson in 1966 to assume the presidency of the Ford Foundation. During the nearly two decades that Bundy spent directing the $3 billion tax-exempt fund, he arguably wielded more power than he did during his six years as the National Security Adviser to two presidents. Under the Bundy reign the Ford Foundation spent hundreds of millions of dollars to launch the environmentalist movement and funded scores of projects devoted to population reduction in the Third World.

    From its early decades, the Order has concentrated much of its efforts at establishing, controlling and, in some instances, capturing the major tax-exempt philanthropic foundations of America. The Russell Sage Foundation, which specializes in "social control" programs, was founded by Bonesmen. Among the leading functions of the Russell Sage Foundation today is the maintaining of a centralized tracking of the finances of all the large tax-exempt foundations in the United States. The Peabody Foundation, the Slater Foundation and several of the Rockefeller foundations were all either started by members of the Order or have been dominated by Bonesmen from their inception. Other major family funds, like the Ford Foundation and the Carnegie Endowment, were wrestled from family control by the Skull & Bones apparatus. During the tenure of McGeorge Bundy, two members of the Ford family resigned from the Ford Foundation in disgust over the direction in which Bundy had taken the philanthropic agency.


    THE NEW WORLD ORDER

    Between 1983-1986, the British-born conspiracy theorist Antony Sutton wrote a series of pamphlets about the Order of Skull & Bones. According to informed sources, Sutton was one of several historians who were provided with a large file of the Order's internal documents, including minutes of some meetings, descriptions of rituals, and what would appear to be a rather complete list of its members from its founding through to the early 1980s. The short pamphlets were compiled into one volume and published as a book in 1986.

    For someone closely following the just-concluded Persian Gulf War and attempting to gain some insight into George Bush's performance during that largely orchestrated affair, one recurring theme in the Sutton volume stands out like a sore thumb: the New World Order.

    According to the Skull & Bones documents used by Sutton in his somewhat flawed profile of the Order, the creation of a New World Order is a primary goal of the Bonesmen and has been for decades. For the initiates into the Order, the term New World Order has a very specific meaning.

    It is a world dominated by American military power and American control over all strategic raw materials. Just as the Greek city-state of Sparta provided the Skull & Bones with the image of a WASP warrior caste, the Persian Empire, with its system of coalitions of satrap armies, provides the model for the Bonesmen's New World Order. The image of Secretary of State James A. Baker III traveling from foreign capital to foreign capital demanding military legions or chests of gold to finance the war for a New World Order is an image straight out of the chronicles of the Persian Empire.

    According to the recent biography of Henry Stimson, the man who inspired President Bush was firmly convinced that it was essential for America to go to war once every generation or so. It was, for Stimson, a spiritually cleansing process which enables the nation to rally behind a cause and overcome its weaknesses and shortcomings in one grand burst of military fervor. The romantic mystique of the purgative powers of combat is key to understanding the political philosophy of Skull & Bones.

    Although America's Vietnam debacle remains a bitter memory of the Bonesmen's failure in war, the recent Persian Gulf conflict, with its massive overkill and the use of highly advanced weapons and technologies, is now the new glorious symbol of the WASP warrior caste's reincarnation. When President Bush vowed that the Gulf War would not be another Vietnam, he was speaking first and foremost to his fellow Bonesmen -- not to the American people. If such thinking smacks of dangerous fantasy on the part of a major world power in the modern era, it is indeed.

    On a more practical political level, the Gulf War was a gambit to save the Bush presidency from a mounting pile of domestic financial woes, not the least of which was the savings and loan (S&L) crisis and a pending series of failures of major commercial banks. In the months preceding the Gulf showdown, the president's own son, Neil Bush, came under intense media scrutiny for his role in the failure of a large S&L in Colorado. Neil's photograph, testifying under oath before a congressional committee probing fraud among top S & L managers, became a familiar front-page feature in every major newspaper in America, threatening dangerous popular disillusion with the Yale Bonesman in the White House. With a U.S. federal government deficit projected at nearly a half a trillion dollars for Fiscal Year 1991, in large part because of the S&L crisis and a shrinking business tax base, the Democratic Party majority in the U.S. Congress was pressing for deep cutbacks in defense spending now that the Cold War had ended.

    On the international stage, the reunification of Germany, clearly the most dramatic event of 1990, posed new challenges to the Bush team. Germany was about to emerge as the dominant power in continental Europe by virtue of its advanced industrial infrastructure and its long tradition of independent political dealings with Moscow. Just months before the outbreak of the Gulf crisis, Germany's Chancellor Helmut Kohl had met with Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev and signed a long term economic assistance pact. As a result, Gorbachev dropped all remaining objections to the immediate reunification of Germany.

    At that point, the Bush administration changed its tactics. Previously, in sharp contrast to the Thatcher government in Great Britain, it had been nominally in favor of German reunification. But at the Houston economic summit of the Group of Seven Industrialized Countries in the summer of 1990, the United States blocked (with Britain) Germany's plan of unconditional economic aid to the Soviet Union. President Bush took the position that the Soviet Union must submit to International Monetary Fund requisites as a precondition for any substantive economic assistance.

    In the Far East, Japan's continuing growth in manufacturing also posed a threat to Washington's desire to retain superpower status. If President Bush and his Bonesmen coterie were unaware of a stunning historical analogy, their British "cousins" were quick to pick up on the parallels between the global strategic situation in July 1990 and the identical international situation that existed 100 years earlier.

    In the 1890s, France, under the brilliant political leadership of Foreign Minister Gabriel Hanataux, was attempting to forge a Eurasian alliance with Germany, Russia and Meiji Japan. The idea was to link continental Europe with Japan and China through a series of large overland infrastructure projects, beginning with the Trans-Siberian Railroad. Through treaties covering key areas of economic and security matters, Hanataux hoped to create a zone of prosperity, built on a foundation of rapid economic growth and extensive trade.

    Such a political-economic common interest alliance threatened the imperial hegemony of Great Britain. At the turn of the 20th century, Britain looked to the United States (as its English-speaking ally) to join in sabotaging the Hanataux plan. Through the Spanish-American War of 1898 and the Russo-Japanese War of 1905, Britain and her American junior partner (by then led by Henry Stimson's old mentor Teddy Roosevelt) managed to disrupt the French-German-Russian-Japanese economic axis. Two world wars and the Great Depression were the consequences of that interference.


    THE PERSIAN GULF WAR

    It was against this historical backdrop that President Bush, invoking the World War II imagery of his Skull & Bones idol Henry Stimson, went to war against Iraq. There is even speculation that President Bush was personally instrumental in luring Saddam Hussein into invading Kuwait, thereby provoking the American-led military response. Many news accounts have emphasized that a two-hour private meeting between the president and Margaret Thatcher in the Aspen, Colorado vacation chalet of U.S. Ambassador Henry Catto on August 2, 1990 helped finalize Bush's decision to immediately deploy military force.

    Recently, an astute Japanese analyst drew a disturbing parallel between Bush and FDR, who was greatly influenced by Stimson. According to the writer, FDR lured Japan into World War II through an intricate series of economic warfare maneuvers which left Japan with little choice but to strike-back. In much the same way, said the analyst, Bush had lured Saddam Hussein into Kuwait in order to launch a new Gulf War that would have consequences reaching far beyond Iraq and the Middle East.

    As a result of the military victory over Iraq, the United States is in the process of establishing a string of permanent military bases throughout the Persian Gulf and Near East. The oil sheikdoms of the region, led by Saudi Arabia, are now thoroughly dependent on the American military presence to ensure the survival of their regimes. The Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) is effectively captured by Washington. American bankers aided by U.S. gunboats now are setting world oil prices. Thus, one consequence of the Persian Gulf War is that the United States now has an oil weapon -- pointed principally at Germany and Japan. Ironically, America's two chief economic rivals have paid out a total of $27 billion to date to help finance a Bush administration military adventure which put the oil weapon in Washington's hand.

    Another telling example of how the Order's man in the Oval Office intends to administer a crumbling U.S. domestic economy while imposing the New World Order on the rest of the world is to be found in the recent buyout of the majority of stock in Citicorp, the largest U.S. commercial bank, by Saudi Prince Talal bin Abdul Aziz. Citicorp is one of the major American commercial banks on the verge of collapse, but which is considered by the Bush administration and the Federal Reserve System to be "too big to fall." The stock purchase amounted to a Saudi Royal Family bail-out of Citicorp, using the increased profits being enjoyed by the House of Saud as a result of the massive jump in Saudi oil production since the beginning of the Gulf crisis in August 1990.

    There points up a striking difference between the role of the United States in World War II and the Bush administration's handling to date of the Middle East crisis. During World War II, the United States went through a genuine economic revival. Skull & Bones historian Samuel Huntington described it as a "neo Hamiltonian" policy, a reference to the first United States Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton. Beginning in 1939, America became a major supplier of military and industrial goods under the Lend-Lease program to the European states fighting Hitler. At the same time, the federal government began issuing low-interest credits to revive the nation's manufacturing base which had been gutted by a decade of economic depression. The industrial buildup accelerated once the United States formally entered .World War II, leading to the establishing of entirely new industrial sectors, such as aerospace and petrochemicals.

    This time around -- at least to date -- there has been no such marshaling of the U.S. domestic industrial base. Despite moderate increases in the production of certain high-tech weapons systems, the U.S. economy continues its gradual slide into what could be a new depression. Unemployment is greater than at any point in the last decade. Some sociologists fear that the complete disintegration of America's urban centers could produce new race-riots as early as the summer of 1991.

    The single greatest challenge to George Bush and the Order is: Can they capitalize on the current revival of the American spirit to reverse the disastrous post-industrial society dogmas, and launch their own version of the World War II neo-Hamiltonian industrial recovery? So far, some doomsayers claim, it appears that Bush and his administration plan instead to direct their efforts at looting and blackmailing the rest of the world -- especially the gulf oil sheikdoms, Japan and Germany -- into bailing out the bankrupt U.S. financial houses and federal government and financing the posting of American-led foreign legions at every corner of the globe where there are large deposits of strategic raw materials. If this policy is not altered, George Bush may soon find himself presiding over a new disaster that will make the Vietnam debacle appear insignificant in comparison.

    The politics of the New World Order appear to be borrowed largely from the pages of the decline and fall of the British Empire. Political columnist Patrick Buchanan, an early vocal opponent of the Bush Persian Gulf strategy, warned as early as August 1990 that the White House was falling into the trap of British "balance of power" politics, the very politics that left Great Britain on the scrap heap of world powers at the close of World War II, and put Winston Churchill, the architect of World War II and the Cold War, out of a job.

    Since the crushing military defeat of Iraq by a technologically far superior American-led coalition, the Bush administration has vacillated on a postwar policy for the region. It has pursued a pragmatic power balancing game which is rife with potential problems. The two key elements of the American balance-of-power politics in the region are the preservation of a weakened but territorially whole Iraq to offset the other would-be regional-powers Iran and Syria. At the same time, it is tilting toward a nominally more "pro-Arab" position with regard to the Arab-Israeli conflict.

    While the harsh reparations terms being imposed upon a war-devastated Iraq are probably, in the mind of Bush, aimed at dissuading any future regional military power from launching-cross-border aggressions, they amount to the slow, excruciating extermination of the population of that country. As one seasoned observer noted recently, earlier air wars had caused greater immediate losses of life, due to the inaccuracy of bombs and rockets, but had generally left basic infrastructures intact. The precision bombing of Iraq's entire infrastructure has caused what a United Nations team has called an "apocalypse." The greater loss of life will occur in the aftermath of the combat as a country with 16 million inhabitants is suddenly thrown into a "pre-industrial" state with no electricity, no water or other necessities. American humanitarian aid, administered by occupying troops, will not offset this apocalypse -- especially if harsh war reparations and asset seizures deprive Iraq of the financial resources needed to begin a rebuilding process.

    Regardless of the fact that the United States has not thrown the full weight of its military presence behind the overthrow of the Saddam Hussein regime, the shortsightedness of the present Bush policy may very well lead to a Lebanon-type protracted civil war in Iraq. Such a war could potentially spread throughout the region.


    IMPLICATIONS FOR JAPAN

    Throughout this short study of the Order of Skull & Bones, emphasis has been placed on the philosophy, the rituals and the modus operandi of the Bonesmen who have devoted their post-Yale careers to world politics. This particular emphasis was chosen in order to provide the Japanese reader with an insight into how the Bush presidency views the rest of the world, so that it will be possible for Japan to better understand what it faces in the post-Persian Gulf War strategic environment.

    The implications of Skull & Bones domination over American policymaking under the Bush presidency are enormous. Japan must be prepared to meet what amounts to a fundamentally new challenge. Few of the postwar experiences in U.S. Japanese relations will have prepared the Japanese government and the leaders of Japanese industry and finance for-what they now face.

    In the recent past, the policy of Washington toward Japan has been simply to use political leverage, mostly related to Japan's regional security concerns, to exact compromises and concessions in the economic and financial sphere. But the United States, under its policy of free trade, privatization of the monetary and credit mechanisms, and the transition to post-industrial service-oriented forms of economic activity at home, has suffered a gradual but steady decline over the past 20 to 30 years. Japan, meanwhile, has prospered under a more protectionist and industry oriented policy.

    In the past decade, Japan has been increasingly thrust into the role of scapegoat for the decline of American prosperity, while at the same time coming under mounting pressure to help finance the United States out of its economic mess. The pressures upon Japan to bail out its postwar big brother have caused tensions between Washington and Tokyo, but the Cold War had provided a common security interest that generally offset the occasional rough language.

    Under the George Bush Skull & Bones regime at the White House all that has changed. True to the Bonesmen's credo of constructive chaos and global political domination by the WASP Establishment, the United States is now out to dominate U.S.-Japanese relations with a degree of brutal frankness that will fly in the face of all previous American sensitivities to Japan's honor. Gone are the days of former U.S. Ambassador Michael Mansfield, who always sought to maintain a public climate of friendship and cooperation between the two nations even when behind the scenes he was taking the toughest of stands on the most divisive issues.

    Under the American-led New World Order, Japan can expect to be treated with far less respect publicly. It can expect that the Bush administration, including his coterie of former top CIA men now working directly out of the Oval Office, will be constantly interfering, covertly in the internal affairs of Nippon.

    This shift in style has held sway since the Bush inauguration and the subsequent appointment of Michael Armacost as U.S. Ambassador to Tokyo. Armacost has assumed the posture of a Roman pro-consul, dictating policy to a weak satrap, rather than to engage, in diplomatic dialogue. Armacost's performance even before the recent events in the Persian Gulf reestablished American military might as the defining factor in world affairs -- should have provided the Japanese leadership with a clue as to the shift under way in Washington's new policy approach.

    The Bush policy can best be described as a sophisticated containment policy. The new approach to Pacific affairs was telegraphed in the early days of the Bush administration when the president deployed three of his most trusted senior spooks to three critical Asian diplomatic posts: Armacost was sent to Tokyo; Bush's vice presidential national security aide and former career CIA operator Donald Gregg was sent to Seoul; and John Lilly, another career CIA man and a fellow Yale Skull & Bones member, was sent to Beijing. The fact that three of the CIA's most experienced clandestine field operators were assigned the senior diplomatic posts says a great deal about the Bush administration's intentions to conduct sophisticated political-warfare and sow confusion among the three major nations of the Far East. Bush clearly intends to pursue the historic Skull & Bones mission of extending America's dominion over the entire Pacific region. The idea of even paying lip service to equal partnership between Washington and Tokyo is over, at least for the time being.

    The process of internally weakening Japan's resistance to this overarching domination by Washington's New World Order began with the Recruit scandal, when the Takeshita government was brought down through a U.S.-inspired secret intelligence operation. One of the primary targets of that operation was Yashuhiro Nakasone, the former prime minister and the architect of Japan's post-1973 effort to develop independent ties to the oil-producing Arab states of the Persian Gulf.

    It is important to understand that Bush's WASP warriors, while adopting a similar approach of non-compromise and domination over Israel and the Zionist lobby inside the United States, will not hesitate to use the Jewish lobby as an instrument for bashing Japan into line. Thus, Commerce Secretary Robert Mosbacher went out of his way to encourage the Anti-Defamation League's leadership convention, which he addressed last year, to join with the Bush administration in pressuring Japan to submit to American free trade demands.

    The Bush administration will at times encourage the Zionist lobby and Israel to mercilessly attack Japan and will at other times severely criticize Zionist "insensitivity" to Tokyo. This will all be part of the Bush strategy to dominate the Pacific Rim by playing one country or faction off against another, using hard cop-soft cop and other classic techniques of the intelligence trade.

    Japan will be offered a limited junior partner status in the New World Order, while coming under mounting pressure to continue providing tribute to finance the American imperium. Above all else, Japan will be forbidden from developing any independent foreign policy toward its neighbors, the Soviet Union, the Arab world or anyone else. Such programs as the Global Infrastructure Fund, to the extent that they pose an alternative to the U.S.-dominated international regime, will be vetoed.

    As a subservient junior partner in the New World Order arrangement, Japan's financial and economic muscle will be used as the piggy-bank for U.S. imperial objectives. The $14 billion "contribution" to the U.S.-led Gulf-War coalition was another benchmark in the transition in U.S.-Japanese relations, as was President Bush's abrupt cancellation of his long-sheduled state visit to Tokyo. When the chairman of the Liberal Democratic Party (LDP) attempted to visit Kuwait immediately after the gulf cease-fire in March l991, the U.S. State Department refused to grant him permission to go into the American-occupied territory. These intentional diplomatic affronts should be understood as telling signs of the new American-Japanese relationship.

    On the other-hand, President Bush also suddenly scheduled a brief summit with Japanese Prime Minister Kaifu in Newport Beach, California for April 4, 1991. One purpose of the sudden meeting was to lay out clear parameters of acceptable behavior on the part of the Japanese government when the prime minister meets later in April with Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev. Japanese Soviet relations, like all other crucial Japanese foreign relations, will be expected to conform with those of the U.S.

    An essential blackmail "stick" that the Bush administration intends to hold over Tokyo is-Japanese dependency on Persian Gulf oil. As-the result of the Gulf War and the post war American military occupation of Kuwait, Saudi Arabia and other-key oil-producing sheikdoms, the Bush administration will exert unabashed control over world oil supplies -- and prices. In the New World Order, Japan's oil supply will be increasingly linked to concessions on a range of monetary and economic issues, including the Global Agreements on Trade and Tariffs (GATT) talks, which broke up last year as the result of largely Japanese and continental European resistance to the pure free-trade system sought by Bush and Thatcher. Assistant Treasury Secretary David Mulford, a former senior official at White Weld Securities, Inc., which restructured Saudi Arabia's entire financial apparatus, has recently announced that he will seek to prosecute Japan for its violations of the GATT regulations that call upon Tokyo to surrender government control over interest rate policies to the international banking community.

    The Bush presidency, with its ambitious drive for domination over former friends and foes alike, poses an unprecedented challenge to Japan. While this is neither the time nor the place to offer a solution to the growing dilemma, the profile of the men of Skull & Bones in this white paper should provide the Japanese reader with helpful insights into the nature of the American WASP warrior class and the secret society which spawned it.


    Bibliography

    "Bush Boy's Club: Skull and Bones." Covert Information Action Bulletin, Winter, 1990.

    Halberstam, David. The Best and the Brightest. Random House, New York, 1969.

    Hodgson, Godfrey. The Colonel: The Life and Wars of Henry Stimson. Alfred Knopf, New York, 1990.

    Isaacson, Walter and Evan Thomas. The Wisemen: Six Friends and the World They Made. Simon and Schuster, New York, l986.

    "Membership List of All Skull and Bones Members From 1833-1950." The Russell Trust Association, New Haven, Conn., 1949.

    Ranleagh, John. The Agency: The Rise and Decline of the CIA. Simon and Schuster, New York, 1986.

    Rosenbaum, Ron. "Skull and Bones: An Elegy for Mumbo Jumbo." Esquire Magazine, September, 1977.

    "Skull and Bones: A Short History." Executive Intelligence Review, January 30, 1980.

    Stimson, Henry and McGeorge Bundy. In Active Service in Peace and War. Octagon Press, New York, 1949

    Sutton, Antony C. America's Secret Establishment: An Introduction to the Order of Skull and Bones. Liberty Press, Billings, Mont., 1986.

    Winks, Robin. Cloak and Gown Scholars in the Secret War William Morrow, New York, 1987.


    Some Prominent Members of Skull & Bones:

    William F. Buckley, Jr. (Bones Class of 1950):
    Founder of National Review, the leading conservative magazine in the United States. Brother James (Skull & Bones l944) is now a member of the U.S. Court of Appeals. William F. Buckley, Jr., former CIA officer in Mexico, also built the political grassroots conservative movement in the U.S. in the 1960s. President Bush and Buckley have recently split over Buckley's strong pro-lsraelism.

    McGeorge Bundy (Skull & Bones initiate of 1940):
    Scion of the Skull & Bones Bundy family. Father Harvey H. Bundy was Skull & Bones, as was brother William P. Bundy. McGeorge served in the War De

    Department during World War II as Henry Stimson's assistant and later became the Nalional Security Adviser to President Kennedy. William Bundy became a CIA official and later served in key positions at the Departments of State and Defense. McGeorge headed the Ford Foundation (1968-1980) and William chaired the Council on Foreign Relations (1972-1983).

    George Bush (initiated in 1948) President of the United States. Comes from a complete Bones family. Father Prescott, a Bones initiate of the class of 1917. Uncle George Herbert Walker, Bones Class of 1927. U S Federal District Court Judge

    John Walker is also a relative and a Bonesman.

    Alfred Cowles (Class of 1913): Built the Cowles Communication empire based on the Des Moines (lowa) Register and the Minneapolis (Minnesota) Star and Tribune. These two newspapers play a significant role in shaping the early presidential primaries, especially in Iowa.

    Hugh Cunningham (Bones 1934); CIA man from 1947 to 1973. He served in top positions in the Clandestine Services, the Board of National Estimates and later as Director of Training.

    Thomas Daniels (initiated in 1914) founder of the largest agro-business and grain cartel company in Minnesota-Archer-Daniels-Midland (ADM) Served in the Foreign Service and later during World War II as head of the Fats and Oils Section of the War Produclion Board. ADM Corporation's new head Dwayne Andreas is one of the most powerful figures in U.S.-Soviet trade relations. Daniels's only son, John (Bones 1943), also works in ADM. The bank which underwrites ADM stock issues is the Morgan Stanley investment bank

    Richard Ely Danielson (Skull & Bones 1907) Past publisher of the Atlanric Monthly magazine, one of the leading magazines for seeing which policy line on a variety of issues is coming out of the Eastern Establishment.

    Russell Wheeler Davenport (initiated in 1923); Fortune magazine writer and editor, made this magazine the leading authority on financial matters in the United States. Davenport created the Fortune 500 companies list.

    Henry P. Davison (Bones Class of l920): Key senior partner in the Morgan banking and financial trust networks. His fellow Bonesman Harold Stanley (1908) founded the investment bank Morgan Stanley. Davison and his family helped set up the Guaranty Trust Corporation which became Morgan Guaranty Thomas Cochran (1904 Bonesman) was one of the most powerful partners in the Morgan bank. The influence of the Mgrgan banking system can be seen in its relationship with the hierarchy of U.S. intelligence. The head of the Office of Strategic Services, Gen. William Donovan, worked as a Morgan intelligence operative in thc 1920s and prepared the intelligence reports for the Morgan banking concerns on developments in Europe. F. Trubee Davison became CIA Director of Personnel in 1951 and placed key Bonesmen in the right positions inside the CIA.

    Averell Harriman (1913 initiate). Scion of the Harriman railroad family. His brother Roland (Skull & Bones 1917) ran the investment bank Brown Brothers Harriman. Averell was one of the most powerful members of the Skull & Bones fralernity,

    His government posts ranged from Ambassador to Russia during World War II and various State Department positions to chief negotiator on the Vietnam Talks. Confidential adviser to Presidents Roosevelt, Truman, Kennedy, Johnson and later

    Nixon and Carter. His investment banking firm is virtually a Skull & Bones bank-nine senior partners are from Skull & Bones.

    President Bush's father worked in Brown Brothers Harriman after helping to merge several companies in the Unitd Rubber Corporation of America.

    Winston Lord (Bones Class of 1959): Chairmah of the Council on Foreign Relations (1983-l988). Former State Department official and CIA officer in Asia. China expert. Six members of the Lord family were Skull & Bones, including Charles Edwin Lord, former Comptroller of the Currency, Department of the Treasury. Oswald Bates Lord (Skull & Bones l926) married Mary Pillsbury of the Minnesota based Pillsbury Flour Corporation. Winston Lord is their son.

    Robert A. Lovett (1918 initiate): Put together the Brown Brothers Harriman merger and later organized the aviation industry mobilization for World War II. Became part of the most exclusive power group in World War II under Henry Stimson. Lovett was one of the five or six most powerful men in the United States for nearly 40 years until his death in 1986.

    Henry Luce (initiated in 1920): Built the Time-Life publishing empire. Became the leading publicist of the "American century" doctrine

    Dino Pionzio (Bones Class of 1950): CIA deputy chief of station in Chile during the overthrow of Chilean President Salvador Allende. Now works at the investment firm Dillion Read.

    Alphonso Taft (initiated in 1833): Secretary of War (1876), Attorney General (1876-1877) and later Minister to Austria and Russia. Co-founder of Skull & Bones.

    Robert A. Taft (1910 initiate); Speaker of the House of Representatives (1921-1926) and Senator (R-Ohio). Leader of the Isolationist movement in the 1930s. His son Robert A. Taft, Jr., also senator from Ohio, led the right-wing of the Republican Party in the 1950s and 1960s. Robert A. Taft, Jr., however, was the only member of the Taft family who was not Skull & Bones.

    William H. Taft (Skull & Bones 1878): President of the United Statcs (1908-1912) and appointed Chief Justice of the Supreme Court (1921-1930). Secretary of War (1904-1908). Trustee, Carnegie Institution. Part of the long line of Tafts who served in the U.S. government.

    William Collins Whitney (initiated 1863): Secretary of the Navy (1885-1889). Promoter of the Naval Shipyards and financier.

    Part of the Whitney family which sent eight of its members to Yale to become Skull & Bonesmen. Family intermarried with the Payne, Harriman and Vanderbilt clans. The Whitneys became some of Wall Street's most powerful financiers through the Guaranty and Knickerbocker Trust Companies.

    Current U.S. senators who are Skull & Bones members;

    Sen. Jonathan Bingham (D-N.M.).

    Sen. David Boren (D-Okla.) is chairman of the Senate Intelligence Committee.

    Sen. John Chafee (R-R.I.); Former Navy Secretary and on the Senate Intelligenee Committee.

    Sen. John Heinz (R-Pa.): Recently killed in an airplane crash. was a Bonesman as was his father. The Heinz farnily has one of the largest food-producing companies in the world.

    Sen. John Kerry (D-Mass.): Formerly on the Senate Intelligence Committee, Kerry is now on the Senate Foreign Relations Committee.

    Selected Quotations

    * During the Cuban missile crisis in October 1962, two Skull & Bones advisers to President Kennedy, McGeorge Bundy and Robert Lovett, met in the west wing of the White House to discuss strategy. According to author Godfrey Hodgson, there was a photograph of master Bonesman Henry L. Stimson, their mentor, on Lundy's desk. "All during the conversation the old Colonel seemed to be staring me straight in the face," recalled Lovett. Finally, he said to Bundy, "Mac, I think the best service we can perform for the president is to try to approach this as Colonel Stimson would."

    * At the Potsdam summit in 1946 when President Truman first met Soviet dictator Josef Stalin, Stimson told the president: "The chief lesson I have learned in a long life is that the only way to make a man trustworthy is to trust him."

    * Commenting on the plan of Robert Morgenthau, President Franklin D. Roosevelt's Treasury Secretary, to deindustrialize Germany after World War II, Stimson wrote: ". . . just such a crime as the Germans themselves hoped to perpetrate on their victims . . . a crime against civilization itself?" He added rather ironically that the plan was like "a beautiful Nazi program! This is to laugh!"

    * "They possessed a common background, common experience, and a common liking for old wines, proper English and Savile Row clothing," wrote the biographer of former U.S. Ambassador to Japan Joseph Grew. A top level diplomat and State Department powerhouse during the first half of the 20th century, Bonesman Hugh Wilson adds, "The Foreign Service [is] a pretty good club."

    * "These men helped establish a distinguished network connecting Wall Street, Washington, worthy foundations and proper clubs," wrote historian and former JFK aide Arthur Schlesinger, Jr. "The New York financial and legal community was the heart of the American Establishment. Its household deities were Henry L. Stimson and Elihu Root; its present leaders, Robert A. Lovett and John J. McCloy; its front organizations, the Rockefeller, Ford and Carnegie foundations and the Council on Foreign Relations."

    * Brtiish author Godfrey Hodgson stated in an essay on the American Establishment that it was "characteristic of these men to take on the burdens of world power with a certain avidity . . . It reflected a grim but grand duty that was a legacy from half-buried layer of New England Puritanism."

    * Averell Harriman's father, owner of the largest railroad company in the United States at the turn of the century, told his son: "Great wealth is an obligation and responsibility. Money must work for the country."

    * "I scoffed at Harvard's Porcellian club. It was too smug. But to get into Bones, you had to do something for Yale, wrote Averell Harriman. He would frequently retum to the "Tomb on High Street." During the Paris Peace Conference on the Vietnam War, Harriman was quite upset about not being able to attend a "Bones Reunion." In the book The Wise Men, Harriman is described as willing to talk openly about national security affairs, but "he refused, however, to tell [even] his family anything about Bones . . . so complete was his trust in Bones's code of secrecy . . ."

    * Stimson during the liberation of France in 1944 wrote about the need for France's reconstruction following the Nazi occupation of France: "America cannot supervise the elections of a great country like France. Consequently, we must eventually leave the execution of the State Department formula to the French themselves . . . where we ourselves will assume responsibility in part or more for its execution according to Anglo-Saxon ideals."

    * Stimson on Austria and Germany following World War II: "They [the British] haven't any grasp apparently of the underlying need of proper economic arrangements to make peace stick . . . If they restore Austria to her position in which she was left by the Versailles arrangement 25 years ago, why they would reduce her to a non-self-sustaining state [is beyond me] . . . Central Europe after the war has got to eat. She has got to be free of tariffs in order to eat."

    * Stimson was "opposed to a Carthaginian Peace" in which Germany was reduced to a non functioning society. He wrote, "The Ruhr and Saarland . . . . [must not] be turned into a second rate industrial land . . . regardless of what it means to Germany . . . [rather] to the welfare of the entire continent "

    * In 1948, the debate within the U.S. government over the creation of the state of Israel was reaching critical intensity. President Truman was the "dark horse" candidate to defeat the Republican nominee, Thomas Dewey. Truman thought he needed the Jewish goups to mobilize in his support in order to get elected. He also believed that after so many years of suffering and persecution, the Jews deserved a homeland of their own. However, his most trusted foreign policy advisers, George Marshall, Dean Acheson and Robert Lovett, were, according to the book The Wise Men, "all dead set against the birth of Israel . . . However humanitarian a Jewish homeland might seem . . . it posed a real risk to U.N. national security. It was absolutely vital that the U.S. maintain its pipeline to Mideast oil. Supporting the Zionist cause would only antagonize the Arabs." Lovett said, "Israel was one ally too many "

    * On Japan, Stimson and McGeorge Bundy wrote their book On Active Service in Peace and War: "Since 1937, when the Japanese attacked China, Stimson had been urging, as a private citizen, an embargo on all American trade with Japan, and this attitude he carried with him into the Cabinet [when he became Secretary of War]." Stimson prepared a memorandum in 1940 pointing out how Japan had yielded before American firmness, in her withdrawal from Shantung and Siberia in 1919 and her acceptance of naval inferiority in 1921. "Japan," Stimson wrote, "has historically shown that she can misinterpret a pacifistic policy of the United States for weakness. She has also historically shown that when the United States indicates by clear language and bold actions that she intends to carry out a clear and afflrmative policy in the Far East, Japan will yield to that policy even though it conflicts with her own Asiatic policy and conceived interests. For the United States now to indicate either by soft words or inconsistent actions that she has no such clear and definite policy towards the Far East will only encourage Japan to bolder action."

    * On December 7, 1941, Stimson wrote in his diary: "When the news first came that Japan had attacked us, my first feeling was of relief that the indecision was over and that crisis had come in a way which would unite all our people. This continued to be my dominant feeling in spite of the news of catastrophes which quickly developed. For I feel that this country united has practically nothing to fear, while the apathy and division stirred by unpatriotic men have been hitherto very discouraging."

    * On the decision to drop the atomic bomb on Hiroshima, Stimson wrote in an article for Harper's Weekly in 1947: "My chief purpose was to end the war in victory with the least possible cost in the lives of men in the armies which I had helped to raise. In the light that no man, in our position and subject to our responsibilities, holding in his hands a weapon of such possibilides for accomplishing this purpose and saving those lives, could have failed to use it and afterwards looked his countrymen in the face."

    * At the Truman White House in the presence of Secretary of State James Byrnes, Adm Leahy and Secretary of the Navy James Forrestal, according to his biographer: "Stimson had argued consistently for a commitment to allow the Japanese to keep their Emperor, not because with the memory of Manchuria in his mind-he had any special sympathy for him, but because only the Emperor could persuade the Japanese to surrender and therefore save American lives."

     http://www.trunkerton.fsnet.co.uk/george_bush__skull.htm

 

 


Book Re: Who Armed Hitler
January 21, 1997
Re: Who financed the Bolsheviks and Hitler (bylo Kto sfinansowal Bolszewikow i Hitlera)
Interesting details on the financing of Hitler and dealings with the Nazi regime are in the book George Bush, The Unauthorized Biography (1992) by Webster Griffin Tarpey and Anton Chaikin. Published by the Executive Intelligence Review, P. O. Box 17390, Washington, DC 20041-0390. ISBN # 0-943235-05-7. 659 pages. Price $20.00.
Quoted without omissions from pages 33 and 34: "On March 19, 1934, Prescott Bush - then director of the German Steel Trust's Union Banking Corporation - initiated an alert to the absent Averell Harriman about a problem which had developed in the Flick partnership.18 Bush sent Harriman a clipping from the New York Times of that day, which reported that the Polish government was fighting back against American and German stockholders who controlled "Poland's largest industrial unit, the Upper Silesian Coal and Steel Company ..."
The Times article continued: "The company has long been accused of mismanagement, excessive borrowing, ficticious bookkeeping and gambling in securities. Warrants were issued in December for several directors accused of tax evasions. They were German citizens and they fled. They were replaced by Poles. Herr Flick, regarding this as an attempt to make the company's board entirely Polish, retaliated by restricting credits until the new Polish directors were unable to pay the workmen regularly."
The Times noted that the company's mines and mills "employ 25,000 men and account for 45 percent of Poland's total steel output and 12 percent of her coal production. Two-thirds of the company's stock is owned by Friedrich Flick, a leading German steel industialist, and the remainder is owned by interests in the United States."
In view of the fact that a great deal of Polish output was being exported to Hitler Germany under depression conditions, the Polish government thought that Prescott Bush, Harriman and their Nazi partners should at least pay full taxes on their Polish holdings. The U.S. and Nazi owners responded with a lockout. The letter to Harriman in Washington reported a cable from their European representative: "Have undertaken new steps London Berlin ... please establish friendly relations with Polish Ambassador [in Washington]."

In 1935 Harriman Fifteen Corporation memo from George Walker announced an agreement had been made "in Berlin" to sell an 8,000 block of their shares in consolidated Silesian Steel.19 But the dispute with Poland did not deter the Bush family from continuing its partnersihip with Flick.
Nazi tanks and bombs "settled" this dispute in September 1939 with the invasion of Poland, beginning World War II. The Nazi army had been equipped by Flick, Harriman, Walker and Bush, with materials essentially stolen from Poland.

There were probably few people at the time who could appreciate the irony, that when the Soviets also attacked and invaded Poland from the East, their vehicles were fueled by oil pumped from Baku wells revived by the Harriman/Walker/Bush enterprise.
Three years later, nearly a year after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, the U.S. government ordered the seizure of the Nazis' share in the Silesian- American corporation under the Trading with the Enemy Act. Enemy nationals were said to won 49 percent of the common stock and 41.67 percent of the preferred stock of the company.
The order characterized the company as a "business enterprise within the United States, owned by [a front company in] Zurich, Switzerland, and held for the benefit of Bergwerksgesellschaft George von Giesche's Erben, a German corporation ..."20
Bert Walker was still the senior director of the company, which he had founded back in 1926 simultaneously with the creation of the German Steel Trust. Ray Morris, Prescott's partner from Union Banking Corp. and Brown Brothers Harriman, was also a director.
The investigtive report prior to the government crackdown explained the "NATURE OF BUSINESS: The subject corporation is an American holding company for German and Polish
subsidiaries, which own large and valuable coal and zinc mines in Silesia, Poland and Germany. Since September 1939, these properties have been in the possession of an have been operated by the German government and have undoubtedly been of considerable assistance to that country in its war effort."21 -- End of quote, pages 33 and 34.

Page 34: "Control of Nazi Commerce. Bert Walker had arranged the credits Harriman needed to take control of the Hamburg-Amerika Line back in 1920. Walker had organized the American Ship and Commerce Corp. as a unit of the W.A. Harriman & Co., with contractual power over Hamburg-Amerika's affairs. As the Hitler project went into high gear, Harriman-Bush shares in American Ship and commerce Corp. were held by the Harriman Fifteen Corp., run by Prescott Bush and Bert Walker.22. - End of quote, page 34.

Pages 35 to 37 quoted without omissions: "In many ways, Bush's Hamburg- Amerika Line was the pivot for the entire Hitler project.

Averell Harriman and Bert Walker had gained control over the steamship company in 1920 in negotiations with its post-World War I chief executive, Wilhelm Cuno, and with the line's bankers, M.M. Warburg. Cuno was thereafter completely dependent on the Anglo-Americans, and became a member of the Anglo- German Frienship Society. In the 1930-32 drive for a Hitler dictatorship, Wilhelm Cuno contributed important sums to the Nazi Party.23
Albert Voegler was chief executive of the Thyssen-Flick German Steel Trust for which Bush's Union Banking Corp. was the New York office. He was a director of the Bush-affiliate BHS Bank in Rotterdam, and a director of the Harriman-Bush Hamburg-Amerika Line. Voegel joined Thyssen and Flick in their heavy 1930-33 Nazi contributions, and helped organize the final Nazi leap into national power.24
The Schroeder family of bankers was a linchpin for the Nazi activities of Harriman and Prescott Bush, closely tied to their lawyers Allen and John Foster Dulles.
Baron Kurt von Schroeder was co-director of the Massive Thyssen-Hutte foundry along with Johann Groeninger, Prescott Bush's New York bank partner. Kurt von Schroeder was treasurer of the support organization for the Nazi Party's private armies, to which Friedrich Flick contributed. Kurt von Schroeder and Montagu Norman's protege Hjalmar Schacht together made the final arrangement for Hitler to enter the government.25
Baron Rudolph von Schroeder was vice president and director of the Hamburg- Amerika Line. Long an intimte contact of Averell Harriman's in Germany, Baron Rudolph sent his grandson Baron Johann Rudolph for a tour of Prescott Bush's Brown Brothers Harriman offices in New York City in December 1932 - on the eve of their Hitler-triumph.26
Certain actions taken directly by the Harriman-Bush shipping line in 1932 must be ranked among the gravest acts of treason in this century.
The U.S. embassy in Berlin reported back to Washington that the "costly election campaigns" and "the cost of maintaining a private army of 300,000 to 400,000 men" had raised questions as to the Nazis' financial backers. The constitutional government of the German republic moved to defend national freedom by ordering the Nazi Party private armies disbanded. The U.S. embassy reported that the Hamburg-Amerika Line was purchasing and distributing propaganda attacks against the German government, for attempting this last- minute crackdown on Hitler's forces.27
Thousands of Germans opponents of Hitlerism were shot or intimidated by privately armed Nazi Brown Shirts. In this connection we note that the original "Merchant of Death", Samuel Pryor, was a founding director of both the Union Banking Corp. and the American Ship and Commerce Corp. Since Mr. Pryor was executive committee chairman of Remington Arms and a central figure in the world's private arms traffic, his use to the Hitler project was enhanced as the Bush family's partner in Nazi Party banking and trans-Atlantic shipping.

http://www.geocities.com/CapitolHill/Senate/8844/book9.html

 


this war and earlier ones

From: Jerry Prager
Date: 3/28/2003
Time: 9:11:23 AM
Remote Name: 64.7.145.66
 

Comments

This is some of what the Bush family was up to while our soldier's fought and died in the three years before America finally joined the Second World War. Bush book: Chapter -2- George Bush: The Unauthorized Biography --- by Webster G. Tarpley & Anton Chaitkin Chapter - II - The Hitler Project Bush Property Seized--Trading with the Enemy In October 1942, ten months after entering World War II, America was preparing its first assault against Nazi military forces. Prescott Bush was managing partner of Brown Brothers Harriman. His 18-year-old son George, the future U.S. President, had just begun training to become a naval pilot. On Oct. 20, 1942, the U.S. government ordered the seizure of Nazi German banking operations in New York City which were being conducted by Prescott Bush. Under the Trading with the Enemy Act, the government took over the Union Banking Corporation, in which Bush was a director. The U.S. Alien Property Custodian seized Union Banking Corp.'s stock shares, all of which were owned by Prescott Bush, E. Roland `` Bunny '' Harriman, three Nazi executives, and two other associates of Bush.@s1 The order seizing the bank `` vests '' (seizes) `` all of the capital stock of Union Banking Corporation, a New York corporation, '' and names the holders of its shares as: `` E. Roland Harriman--3991 shares '' [chairman and director of Union Banking Corp. (UBC); this is `` Bunny '' Harriman, described by Prescott Bush as a place holder who didn't get much into banking affairs; Prescott managed his personal investments] `` Cornelis Lievense--4 shares '' [president and director of UBC; New York resident banking functionary for the Nazis] `` Harold D. Pennington--1 share '' [treasurer and director of UBC; an office manager employed by Bush at Brown Brothers Harriman] `` Ray Morris--1 share '' [director of UBC; partner of Bush and the Harrimans] `` Prescott S. Bush--1 share '' [director of UBC, which was co-founded and sponsored by his father-in-law George Walker; senior managing partner for E. Roland Harriman and Averell Harriman] `` H.J. Kouwenhoven--1 share '' [director of UBC; organized UBC as the emissary of Fritz Thyssen in negotiations with George Walker and Averell Harriman; managing director of UBC's Netherlands affiliate under Nazi occupation; industrial executive in Nazi Germany; director and chief foreign financial executive of the German Steel Trust] `` Johann G. Groeninger--1 share '' [director of UBC and of its Netherlands affiliate; industrial executive in Nazi Germany] `` all of which shares are held for the benefit of ... members of the Thyssen family, [and] is property of nationals ... of a designated enemy country.... '' By Oct. 26, 1942, U.S. troops were under way for North Africa. On Oct. 28, the government issued orders seizing two Nazi front organizations run by the Bush-Harriman bank: the Holland-American Trading Corporation and the Seamless Steel Equipment Corporation.@s2 U.S. forces landed under fire near Algiers on Nov. 8, 1942; heavy combat raged throughout November. Nazi interests in the Silesian-American Corporation, long managed by Prescott Bush and his father-in-law George Herbert Walker, were seized under the Trading with the Enemy Act on Nov. 17, 1942. In this action, the government announced that it was seizing only the Nazi interests, leaving the Nazis' U.S. partners to carry on the business.@s3 These and other actions taken by the U.S. government in wartime were, tragically, too little and too late. President Bush's family had already played a central role in financing and arming Adolf Hitler for his takeover of Germany; in financing and managing the buildup of Nazi war industries for the conquest of Europe and war against the U.S.A.; and in the development of Nazi genocide theories and racial propaganda, with their well-known results. The facts presented here must be known, and their implications reflected upon, for a proper understanding of President George Herbert Walker Bush and of the danger to mankind that he represents. The President's family fortune was largely a result of the Hitler project. The powerful Anglo-American family associations, which later boosted him into the Central Intelligence Agency and up to the White House, were his father's partners in the Hitler project. President Franklin Roosevelt's Alien Property Custodian, Leo T. Crowley, signed Vesting Order Number 248 seizing the property of Prescott Bush under the Trading with the Enemy Act. The order, published in obscure government record books and kept out of the news,@s4 explained nothing about the Nazis involved; only that the Union Banking Corporation was run for the `` Thyssen family '' of `` Germany and/or Hungary ''--`` nationals ... of a designated enemy country. '' By deciding that Prescott Bush and the other directors of the Union Banking Corp. were legally front men for the Nazis, the government avoided the more important historical issue: In what way were Hitler's Nazis themselves hired, armed and instructed by the New York and London clique of which Prescott Bush was an executive manager? Let us examine the Harriman-Bush Hitler project from the 1920s until it was partially broken up, to seek an answer for that question. Origin and Extent of the Project Fritz Thyssen and his business partners are universally recognized as the most important German financiers of Adolf Hitler's takeover of Germany. At the time of the order seizing the Thyssen family's Union Banking Corp., Mr. Fritz Thyssen had already published his famous book, I Paid Hitler,@s5 admitting that he had financed Adolf Hitler and the Nazi movement since October 1923. Thyssen's role as the leading early backer of Hitler's grab for power in Germany had been noted by U.S. diplomats in Berlin in 1932.@s6 The order seizing the Bush-Thyssen bank was curiously quiet and modest about the identity of the perpetrators who had been nailed. But two weeks before the official order, government investigators had reported secretly that `` W. Averell Harriman was in Europe sometime prior to 1924 and at that time became acquainted with Fritz Thyssen, the German industrialist. '' Harriman and Thyssen agreed to set up a bank for Thyssen in New York. `` [C]ertain of [Harriman's] associates would serve as directors.... '' Thyssen agent `` H. J. Kouwenhoven ... came to the United States ... prior to 1924 for conferences with the Harriman Company in this connection.... ''@s7 When exactly was `` Harriman in Europe sometime prior to 1924 ''? In fact, he was in Berlin in 1922 to set up the Berlin branch of W.A. Harriman & Co. under George Walker's presidency. The Union Banking Corporation was established formally in 1924, as a unit in the Manhattan offices of W.A. Harriman & Co., interlocking with the Thyssen-owned Bank voor Handel en Scheepvaart (BHS) in the Netherlands. The investigators concluded that `` the Union Banking Corporation has since its inception handled funds chiefly supplied to it through the Dutch bank by the Thyssen interests for American investment. '' Thus by personal agreement between Averell Harriman and Fritz Thyssen in 1922, W.A. Harriman & Co. (alias Union Banking Corporation) would be transferring funds back and forth between New York and the `` Thyssen interests '' in Germany. By putting up about $400,000, the Harriman organization would be joint owner and manager of Thyssen's banking operations outside of Germany. How important was the Nazi enterprise for which President Bush's father was the New York banker? The 1942 U.S. government investigative report said that Bush's Nazi-front bank was an interlocking concern with the Vereinigte Stahlwerke (United Steel Works Corporation or German Steel Trust) led by Fritz Thyssen and his two brothers. After the war, Congressional investigators probed the Thyssen interests, Union Banking Corp. and related Nazi units. The investigation showed that the Vereinigte Stahlwerke had produced the following approximate proportions of total German national output: 50.8% of Nazi Germany's pig iron 41.4% of Nazi Germany's universal plate 36.0% of Nazi Germany's heavy plate 38.5% of Nazi Germany's galvanized sheet 45.5% of Nazi Germany's pipes and tubes 22.1% of Nazi Germany's wire 35.0% of Nazi Germany's explosives.@s8 Prescott Bush became vice president of W.A. Harriman & Co. in 1926. That same year, a friend of Harriman and Bush set up a giant new organization for their client Fritz Thyssen, prime sponsor of politician Adolf Hitler. The new German Steel Trust, Germany's largest industrial corporation, was organized in 1926 by Wall Street banker Clarence Dillon. Dillon was the old comrade of Prescott Bush's father Sam Bush from the `` Merchants of Death '' bureau in World War I. In return for putting up $70 million to create his organization, majority owner Thyssen gave the Dillon Read company two or more representatives on the board of the new Steel Trust.@s9 Thus there is a division of labor: Thyssen's own confidential accounts, for political and related purposes, were run through the Walker-Bush organization; the German Steel Trust did its corporate banking through Dillon Read. The Walker-Bush firm's banking activities were not just politically neutral money-making ventures which happened to coincide with the aims of German Nazis. All of the firm's European business in those days was organized around anti-democratic political forces. In 1927, criticism of their support for totalitarianism drew this retort from Bert Walker, written from Kennebunkport to Averell Harriman: `` It seems to me that the suggestion in connection with Lord Bearsted's views that we withdraw from Russia smacks somewhat of the impertinent.... I think that we have drawn our line and should hew to it. ''@s1@s0 Averell Harriman met with Italy's fascist dictator, Benito Mussolini. A representative of the firm subsequently telegraphed good news back to his chief executive Bert Walker: `` ... During these last days ... Mussolini ... has examined and approved our c[o]ntract 15 June. ''@s1@s1 The great financial collapse of 1929-31 shook America, Germany and Britain, weakening all governments. It also made the hard-pressed Prescott Bush even more willing to do whatever was necessary to retain his new place in the world. It was in this crisis that certain Anglo-Americans determined on the installation of a Hitler regime in Germany. W.A. Harriman & Co., well-positioned for this enterprise and rich in assets from their German and Russian business, merged with the British-American investment house, Brown Brothers, on January 1, 1931. Bert Walker retired to his own G.H. Walker & Co. This left the Harriman brothers, Prescott Bush and Thatcher M. Brown as the senior partners of the new Brown Brothers Harriman firm. (The London, England branch of the Brown family firm continued operating under its historic name--Brown, Shipley.) Robert A. Lovett also came over as a partner from Brown Brothers. His father, E.H. Harriman's lawyer and railroad chief, had been on the War Industries Board with Prescott's father. Though he remained a partner in Brown Brothers Harriman, the junior Lovett soon replaced his father as chief executive of Union Pacific Railroad. Brown Brothers had a racial tradition that fitted it well for the Hitler project! American patriots had cursed its name back in U.S. Civil War days. Brown Brothers, with offices in the U.S.A. and in England, had carried on their ships fully 75 percent of the slave cotton from the American South over to British mill owners. Now in 1931, the virtual dictator of world finance, Bank of England Governor Montagu Collet Norman, was a former Brown Brothers partner, whose grandfather had been boss of Brown Brothers during the U.S. Civil War. Montagu Norman was known as the most avid of Hitler's supporters within British ruling circles, and Norman's intimacy with this firm was essential to his management of the Hitler project. In 1931, while Prescott Bush ran the New York office of Brown Brothers Harriman, Prescott's partner was Montagu Norman's intimate friend Thatcher Brown. The Bank of England chief always stayed at the home of Prescott's partner on his hush-hush trips to New York. Prescott Bush concentrated on the firm's German activities, and Thatcher Brown saw to their business in old England, under the guidance of his mentor Montagu Norman.@s1@s2 Hitler's Ladder to Power Adolf Hitler became Chancellor of Germany January 30, 1933, and absolute dictator in March 1933, after two years of expensive and violent lobbying and electioneering. Two affiliates of the Bush-Harriman organization played great parts in this criminal undertaking: Thyssen's German Steel Trust; and the Hamburg-Amerika Line and several of its executives.@s1@s3 Let us look more closely at the Bush family's German partners. Fritz Thyssen told Allied interrogators after the war about some of his financial support for the Nazi Party: `` In 1930 or 1931 ... I told [Hitler's deputy Rudolph] Hess ... I would arrange a credit for him with a Dutch bank in Rotterdam, the Bank fu@aur Handel und Schiff [i.e. Bank voor Handel en Scheepvaart (BHS), the Harriman-Bush affiliate]. I arranged the credit ... he would pay it back in three years.... I chose a Dutch bank because I did not want to be mixed up with German banks in my position, and because I thought it was better to do business with a Dutch bank, and I thought I would have the Nazis a little more in my hands... . `` The credit was about 250-300,000 [gold] marks--about the sum I had given before. The loan has been repaid in part to the Dutch bank, but I think some money is still owing on it.... ''@s1@s4 The overall total of Thyssen's political donations and loans to the Nazis was well over a million dollars, including funds he raised from others--in a period of terrible money shortage in Germany. Friedrich Flick was the major co-owner of the German Steel Trust with Fritz Thyssen, Thyssen's long-time collaborator and occasional competitor. In preparation for the war crimes tribunal at Nuremberg, the U.S. government said that Flick was `` one of leading financiers and industrialists who from 1932 contributed large sums to the Nazi Party ... member of `Circle of Friends' of Himmler who contributed large sums to the SS. ''@s1@s5 Flick, like Thyssen, financed the Nazis to maintain their private armies called Schutzstaffel (S.S. or Black Shirts) and Sturmabteilung (S.A., storm troops or Brown Shirts). The Flick-Harriman partnership was directly supervised by Prescott Bush, President Bush's father, and by George Walker, President Bush's grandfather. The Harriman-Walker Union Banking Corp. arrangements for the German Steel Trust had made them bankers for Flick and his vast operations in Germany by no later than 1926. The Harriman Fifteen Corporation (George Walker, president, Prescott Bush and Averell Harriman, sole directors) held a substantial stake in the Silesian Holding Co. at the time of the merger with Brown Brothers, Jan. 1, 1931. This holding correlated to Averell Harriman's chairmanship of the Consolidated Silesian Steel Corporation, the American group owning one-third of a complex of steel-making, coal-mining and zinc-mining activities in Germany and Poland, in which Friedrich Flick owned two-thirds.@s1@s6 The Nuremberg prosecutor characterized Flick as follows: `` Proprietor and head of a large group of industrial enterprises (coal and iron mines, steel producing and fabricating plants) ... `Wehrwirtschaftsfuh@aurer', 1938 [title awarded to prominent industrialists for merit in armaments drive--`Military Economy Leader'].... ''@s1@s7 For this buildup of the Hitler war machine with coal, steel and arms production, using slave laborers, the Nazi Flick was condemned to seven years in prison at the Nuremberg trials; he served three years. With friends in New York and London, however, Flick lived into the 1970s and died a billionaire. On March 19, 1934, Prescott Bush--then director of the German Steel Trust's Union Banking Corporation--initiated an alert to the absent Averell Harriman about a problem which had developed in the Flick partnership.@s1@s8 Bush sent Harriman a clipping from the New York Times of that day, which reported that the Polish government was fighting back against American and German stockholders who controlled `` Poland's largest industrial unit, the Upper Silesian Coal and Steel Company.... '' The Times article continued: `` The company has long been accused of mismanagement, excessive borrowing, fictitious bookkeeping and gambling in securities. Warrants were issued in December for several directors accused of tax evasions. They were German citizens and they fled. They were replaced by Poles. Herr Flick, regarding this as an attempt to make the company's board entirely Polish, retaliated by restricting credits until the new Polish directors were unable to pay the workmen regularly. '' The Times noted that the company's mines and mills `` employ 25,000 men and account for 45 percent of Poland's total steel output and 12 percent of her coal production. Two-thirds of the company's stock is owned by Friedrich Flick, a leading German steel industrialist, and the remainder is owned by interests in the United States. '' In view of the fact that a great deal of Polish output was being exported to Hitler Germany under depression conditions, the Polish government thought that Prescott Bush, Harriman and their Nazi partners should at least pay full taxes on their Polish holdings. The U.S. and Nazi owners responded with a lockout. The letter to Harriman in Washington reported a cable from their European representative: `` Have undertaken new steps London Berlin ... please establish friendly relations with Polish Ambassador [in Washington]. '' A 1935 Harriman Fifteen Corporation memo from George Walker announced an agreement had been made `` in Berlin '' to sell an 8,000 block of their shares in Consolidated Silesian Steel.@s1@s9 But the dispute with Poland did not deter the Bush family from continuing its partnership with Flick. Nazi tanks and bombs `` settled '' this dispute in September, 1939 with the invasion of Poland, beginning World War II. The Nazi army had been equipped by Flick, Harriman, Walker and Bush, with materials essentially stolen from Poland. There were probably few people at the time who could appreciate the irony, that when the Soviets also attacked and invaded Poland from the East, their vehicles were fueled by oil pumped from Baku wells revived by the Harriman/Walker/Bush enterprise. Three years later, nearly a year after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, the U.S. government ordered the seizure of the Nazis' share in the Silesian-American Corporation under the Trading with the Enemy Act. Enemy nationals were said to own 49 percent of the common stock and 41.67 percent of the preferred stock of the company. The order characterized the company as a `` business enterprise within the United States, owned by [a front company in] Zurich, Switzerland, and held for the benefit of Bergwerksgesellschaft George von Giesche's Erben, a German corporation.... ''@s2@s0 Bert Walker was still the senior director of the company, which he had founded back in 1926 simultaneously with the creation of the German Steel Trust. Ray Morris, Prescott's partner from Union Banking Corp. and Brown Brothers Harriman, was also a director. The investigative report prior to the government crackdown explained the `` NATURE OF BUSINESS: The subject corporation is an American holding company for German and Polish subsidiaries, which own large and valuable coal and zinc mines in Silesia, Poland and Germany. Since September 1939, these properties have been in the possession of and have been operated by the German government and have undoubtedly been of considerable assistance to that country in its war effort. ''@s2@s1 The report noted that the American stockholders hoped to regain control of the European properties after the war. Control of Nazi Commerce Bert Walker had arranged the credits Harriman needed to take control of the Hamburg-Amerika Line back in 1920. Walker had organized the American Ship and Commerce Corp. as a unit of the W.A. Harriman & Co., with contractual power over Hamburg-Amerika's affairs. As the Hitler project went into high gear, Harriman-Bush shares in American Ship and Commerce Corp. were held by the Harriman Fifteen Corp., run by Prescott Bush and Bert Walker.@s2@s2 It was a convenient stroll for the well-tanned, athletic, handsome Prescott Bush: From the Brown Brothers Harriman skyscraper at 59 Wall Street--where he was senior managing partner, confidential investments manager and adviser to Averell and his brother `` Bunny ''--he walked across to the Harriman Fifteen Corporation at One Wall Street, otherwise known as G.H. Walker & Co.--and around the corner to his subsidiary offices at 39 Broadway, former home of the old W.A. Harriman & Co., and still the offices for American Ship and Commerce Corp., and of the Union Banking Corporation. In many ways, Bush's Hamburg-Amerika Line was the pivot for the entire Hitler project. Averell Harriman and Bert Walker had gained control over the steamship company in 1920 in negotiations with its post-World War I chief executive, Wilhelm Cuno, and with the line's bankers, M.M. Warburg. Cuno was thereafter completely dependent on the Anglo-Americans, and became a member of the Anglo-German Friendship Society. In the 1930-32 drive for a Hitler dictatorship, Wilhelm Cuno contributed important sums to the Nazi Party.@s2@s3 Albert Voegler was chief executive of the Thyssen-Flick German Steel Trust for which Bush's Union Banking Corp. was the New York office. He was a director of the Bush-affiliate BHS Bank in Rotterdam, and a director of the Harriman-Bush Hamburg-Amerika Line. Voegler joined Thyssen and Flick in their heavy 1930-33 Nazi contributions, and helped organize the final Nazi leap into national power.@s2@s4 The Schroeder family of bankers was a linchpin for the Nazi activities of Harriman and Prescott Bush, closely tied to their lawyers Allen and John Foster Dulles. Baron Kurt von Schroeder was co-director of the massive Thyssen-Hu@autte foundry along with Johann Groeninger, Prescott Bush's New York bank partner. Kurt von Schroeder was treasurer of the support organization for the Nazi Party's private armies, to which Friedrich Flick contributed. Kurt von Schroeder and Montagu Norman's prote@aage@aa Hjalmar Schacht together made the final arrangements for Hitler to enter the government.@s2@s5 Baron Rudolph von Schroeder was vice president and director of the Hamburg-Amerika Line. Long an intimate contact of Averell Harriman's in Germany, Baron Rudolph sent his grandson Baron Johann Rudolph for a tour of Prescott Bush's Brown Brothers Harriman offices in New York City in December 1932--on the eve of their Hitler-triumph.@s2@s6 Certain actions taken directly by the Harriman-Bush shipping line in 1932 must be ranked among the gravest acts of treason in this century. The U.S. embassy in Berlin reported back to Washington that the `` costly election campaigns '' and `` the cost of maintaining a private army of 300,000 to 400,000 men '' had raised questions as to the Nazis' financial backers. The constitutional government of the German republic moved to defend national freedom by ordering the Nazi Party private armies disbanded. The U.S. embassy reported that the Hamburg-Amerika Line was purchasing and distributing propaganda attacks against the German government, for attempting this last-minute crackdown on Hitler's forces.@s2@s7 Thousands of German opponents of Hitlerism were shot or intimidated by privately armed Nazi Brown Shirts. In this connection we note that the original `` Merchant of Death, '' Samuel Pryor, was a founding director of both the Union Banking Corp. and the American Ship and Commerce Corp. Since Mr. Pryor was executive committee chairman of Remington Arms and a central figure in the world's private arms traffic, his use to the Hitler project was enhanced as the Bush family's partner in Nazi Party banking and trans-Atlantic shipping. The U.S. Senate arms-traffic investigators probed Remington after it was joined in a cartel agreement on explosives to the Nazi firm I.G. Farben. Looking at the period leading up to Hitler's seizure of power, the Senators found that `` German political associations, like the Nazi and others, are nearly all armed with American ... guns.... Arms of all kinds coming from America are transshipped in the Scheldt to river barges before the vessels arrive in Antwerp. They then can be carried through Holland without police inspection or interference. The Hitlerists and Communists are presumed to get arms in this manner. The principal arms coming from America are Thompson submachine guns and revolvers. The number is great. ''@s2@s8 The beginning of the Hitler regime brought some bizarre changes to the Hamburg-Amerika Line--and more betrayals. Prescott Bush's American Ship and Commerce Corp. notified Max Warburg of Hamburg, Germany, on March 7, 1933, that Warburg was to be the corporation's official, designated representative on the board of Hamburg-Amerika.@s2@s9 Max Warburg replied on March 27, 1933, assuring his American sponsors that the Hitler government was good for Germany: `` For the last few years business was considerably better than we had anticipated, but a reaction is making itself felt for some months. We are actually suffering also under the very active propaganda against Germany, caused by some unpleasant circumstances. These occurrences were the natural consequence of the very excited election campaign, but were extraordinarily exaggerated in the foreign press. The Government is firmly resolved to maintain public peace and order in Germany, and I feel perfectly convinced in this respect that there is no cause for any alarm whatsoever. ''@s3@s0 This seal of approval for Hitler, coming from a famous Jew, was just what Harriman and Bush required, for they anticipated rather serious `` alarm '' inside the U.S.A. against their Nazi operations. On March 29, 1933, two days after Max's letter to Harriman, Max's son, Erich Warburg, sent a cable to his cousin Frederick M. Warburg, a director of the Harriman railroad system. He asked Frederick to `` use all your influence '' to stop all anti-Nazi activity in America, including `` atrocity news and unfriendly propaganda in foreign press, mass meetings, etc. '' Frederick cabled back to Erich: `` No responsible groups here [are] urging [a] boycott [of] German goods[,] merely excited individuals. '' Two days after that, On March 31, 1933, the American-Jewish Committee, controlled by the Warburgs, and the B'nai B'rith, heavily influenced by the Sulzbergers (New York Times), issued a formal, official joint statement of the two organizations, counseling `` that no American boycott against Germany be encouraged, '' and advising `` that no further mass meetings be held or similar forms of agitation be employed. ''@s3@s1 The American Jewish Committee and the B'nai B'rith (mother of the `` Anti-Defamation League '') continued with this hardline, no-attack-on-Hitler stance all through the 1930s, blunting the fight mounted by many Jews and other anti-fascists. Thus the decisive interchange reproduced above, taking place entirely within the orbit of the Harriman/Bush firm, may explain something of the relationship of George Bush to American Jewish and Zionist leaders. Some of them, in close cooperation with his family, played an ugly part in the drama of Naziism. Is this why `` professional Nazi-hunters '' have never discovered how the Bush family made its money? The executive board of the Hamburg Amerika Line (Hapag) met jointly with the North German Lloyd Company board in Hamburg on Sept. 5, 1933. Under official Nazi supervision, the two firms were merged. Prescott Bush's American Ship and Commerce Corp. installed Christian J. Beck, a long-time Harriman executive, as manager of freight and operations in North America for the new joint Nazi shipping lines (Hapag-Lloyd) on Nov. 4, 1933. According to testimony of officials of the companies before Congress in 1934, a supervisor from the Nazi Labor Front rode with every ship of the Harriman-Bush line; employees of the New York offices were directly organized into the Nazi Labor Front organization; Hamburg-Amerika provided free passage to individuals going abroad for Nazi propaganda purposes; and the line subsidized pro-Nazi newspapers in the U.S.A., as it had done in Germany against the constitutional German government.@s3@s2 In mid-1936, Prescott Bush's American Ship and Commerce Corp. cabled M.M. Warburg, asking Warburg to represent the company's heavy share interest at the forthcoming Hamburg-Amerika stockholders meeting. The Warburg office replied with the information that `` we represented you '' at the stockholders meeting and `` exercised on your behalf your voting power for Rm [gold marks] 3,509,600 Hapag stock deposited with us. '' The Warburgs transmitted a letter received from Emil Helfferich, German chief executive of both Hapag-Lloyd and of the Standard Oil subsidiary in Nazi Germany: `` It is the intention to continue the relations with Mr. Harriman on the same basis as heretofore.... '' In a colorful gesture, Hapag's Nazi chairman Helfferich sent the line's president across the Atlantic on a Zeppelin to confer with their New York string-pullers. After the meeting with the Zeppelin passenger, the Harriman-Bush office replied: `` I am glad to learn that Mr. Hellferich [sic] has stated that relations between the Hamburg American Line and ourselves will be continued on the same basis as heretofore. ''@s3@s3 Two months before moving against Prescott Bush's Union Banking Corporation, the U. S. government ordered the seizure of all property of the Hamburg-Amerika Line and North German Lloyd, under the Trading with the Enemy Act. The investigators noted in the pre-seizure report that Christian J. Beck was still acting as an attorney representing the Nazi firm.@s3@s4 In May 1933, just after the Hitler regime was consolidated, an agreement was reached in Berlin for the coordination of all Nazi commerce with the U.S.A. The Harriman International Co., led by Averell Harriman's first cousin Oliver, was to head a syndicate of 150 firms and individuals, to conduct all exports from Hitler Germany to the United States.@s3@s5 This pact had been negotiated in Berlin between Hitler's economics minister, Hjalmar Schacht, and John Foster Dulles, international attorney for dozens of Nazi enterprises, with the counsel of Max Warburg and Kurt von Schroeder. John Foster Dulles would later be U.S. Secretary of State, and the great power in the Republican Party of the 1950s. Foster's friendship and that of his brother Allen (head of the Central Intelligence Agency), greatly aided Prescott Bush to become the Republican U.S. Senator from Connecticut. And it was to be of inestimable value to George Bush, in his ascent to the heights of `` covert action government, '' that both of these Dulles brothers were the lawyers for the Bush family's far-flung enterprise. Throughout the 1930s, John Foster Dulles arranged debt restructuring for German firms under a series of decrees issued by Adolf Hitler. In these deals, Dulles struck a balance between the interest owed to selected, larger investors, and the needs of the growing Nazi war-making apparatus for producing tanks, poison gas, etc. Dulles wrote to Prescott Bush in 1937 concerning one such arrangement. The German-Atlantic Cable Company, owning Nazi Germany's only telegraph channel to the United States, had made debt and management agreements with the Walker-Harriman bank during the 1920s. A new decree would now void those agreements, which had originally been reached with non-Nazi corporate officials. Dulles asked Bush, who managed these affairs for Averell Harriman, to get Averell's signature on a letter to Nazi officials, agreeing to the changes. Dulles wrote: Sept. 22, 1937 Mr. Prescott S. Bush 59 Wall Street, New York, N.Y. Dear Press, I have looked over the letter of the German-American [sic] Cable Company to Averell Harriman.... It would appear that the only rights in the matter are those which inure in the bankers and that no legal embarrassment would result, so far as the bondholders are concerned, by your acquiescence in the modification of the bankers' agreement. Sincerely yours, John Foster Dulles Dulles enclosed a proposed draft reply, Bush got Harriman's signature, and the changes went through.@s3@s6 In conjunction with these arrangements, the German Atlantic Cable Company attempted to stop payment on its debts to smaller American bondholders. The money was to be used instead for arming the Nazi state, under a decree of the Hitler government. Despite the busy efforts of Bush and Dulles, a New York court decided that this particular Hitler `` law '' was invalid in the United States; small bondholders, not parties to deals between the bankers and the Nazis, were entitled to get paid.@s3@s7 In this and a few other of the attempted swindles, the intended victims came out with their money. But the Nazi financial and political reorganization went ahead to its tragic climax. For his part in the Hitler revolution, Prescott Bush was paid a fortune. This is the legacy he left to his son, President George Bush. An Important Historical Note: How the Harrimans Hired Hitler It was not inevitable that millions would be slaughtered under fascism and in World War II. At certain moments of crisis, crucial pro-Nazi decisions were made outside of Germany. These decisions for pro-Nazi actions were more aggressive than the mere `` appeasement '' which Anglo-American historians later preferred to discuss. Private armies of 300,000 to 400,000 terrorists aided the Nazis' rise to power. W.A. Harriman's Hamburg-Amerika Line intervened against Germany's 1932 attempt to break them up. The 1929-31 economic collapse bankrupted the Wall-Street-backed German Steel Trust. When the German government took over the Trust's stock shares, interests associated with Konrad Adenauer and the anti-Nazi Catholic Center Party attempted to acquire the shares. But the Anglo-Americans--Montagu Norman, and the Harriman-Bush bank--made sure that their Nazi puppet Fritz Thyssen regained control over the shares and the Trust. Thyssen's bankrolling of Hitler could then continue unhindered. Unpayable debts crushed Germany in the 1920s, reparations required by the Versailles agreements. Germany was looted by the London-New York banking system, and Hitler's propaganda exploited this German debt burden. But immediately after Germany came under Hitler's dictatorship, the Anglo-American financiers granted debt relief, which freed funds to be used for arming the Nazi state. The North German Lloyd steamship line, which was merged with Hamburg-Amerika Line, was one of the companies which stopped debt payments under a Hitler decree arranged by John Foster Dulles and Hjalmar Schacht. Kuhn Loeb and Co.'s Felix Warburg carried out the Hitler finance plan in New York. Kuhn Loeb asked North German Lloyd bondholders to accept new lower interest steamship bonds, issued by Kuhn Loeb, in place of the better pre-Hitler bonds. The Opposition New York attorney Jacob Chaitkin, father of coauthor Anton Chaitkin, took the cases of many different bondholders who rejected the swindle by Harriman, Bush, Warburg, and Hitler. Representing a women who was owed $30 on an old steamship bond--and opposing John Foster Dulles in New York municipal court--Chaitkin threatened a writ from the sheriff, tying up the 30,000 ton transatlantic liner Europa until the client received her $30. (New York Times, January 10, 1934, p. 31 col. 3). The American Jewish Congress hired Jacob Chaitkin as the legal director of the boycott against Nazi Germany. The American Federation of Labor cooperated with Jewish and other groups in the anti-import boycott. On the other side, virtually all the Nazi trade with the United States was under the supervision of the Harriman interests and functionaries such as Prescott Bush, father of President George Bush. Meanwhile, the Warburgs demanded that American Jews not `` agitate '' against the Hitler government, or join the organized boycott. The Warburgs' decision was carried out by the American Jewish Committee and the B'nai B'rith, who opposed the boycott as the Nazi military state grew increasingly powerful. The historical coverup on these events is so tight that virtually the only expose@aa of the Warburgs came in journalist John L. Spivak's `` Wall Street's Fascist Conspiracy, '' in the pro-communist New Masses periodical (Jan. 29 and Feb. 5, 1934). Spivak pointed out that the Warburgs controlled the American Jewish Committee, which opposed the anti-Nazi boycott, while their Kuhn Loeb and Co. had underwritten Nazi shipping; and he exposed the financing of pro-fascist political activities by the Warburgs and their partners and allies, many of whom were bigwigs in the American Jewish Committee and B'nai B'rith. Given where the Spivak piece appeared, it is not surprising that Spivak called Warburg an ally of the Morgan Bank, but made no mention of Averell Harriman. Mr. Harriman, after all, was a permanent hero of the Soviet Union. John L. Spivak later underwent a curious transformation, himself joining the coverup. In 1967, he wrote an autobiography (A Man in His Time, New York: Horizon Press), which praises the American Jewish Committee. The pro-fascism of the Warburgs does not appear in the book. The former `` rebel '' Spivak also praises the action arm of the B'nai B'rith, the Anti-Defamation League. Pathetically, he comments favorably that the League has spy files on the American populace which it shares with government agencies. Thus is history erased; and those decisions, which direct history into one course or another, are lost to the knowledge of the current generation. Return to the Table of Contents NOTES: 1. Office of Alien Property Custodian, Vesting Order No. 248. The order was signed by Leo T. Crowley, Alien Property Custodian, executed October 20, 1942; F.R. Doc. 42-11568; Filed, November 6, 1942, 11:31 A.M.; 7 Fed. Reg. 9097 (Nov. 7, 1942). See also the New York City Directory of Directors (available at the Library of Congress). The volumes for the 1930s and 1940s list Prescott Bush as a director of Union Banking Corporation for the years 1934 through 1943. 2. Alien Property Custodian Vesting Order No. 259: Seamless Steel Equipment Corporation; Vesting Order No. 261: Holland-American Trading Corp. 3. Alien Property Custodian Vesting Order No. 370: Silesian-American Corp. 4. The New York Times on December 16, 1944, ran a five-paragraph page 25 article on actions of the New York State Banking Department. Only the last sentence refers to the Nazi bank, as follows: `` The Union Banking Corporation, 39 Broadway, New York, has received authority to change its principal place of business to 120 Broadway. '' The Times omitted the fact that the Union Banking Corporation had been seized by the government for trading with the enemy, and even the fact that 120 Broadway was the address of the government's Alien Property Custodian. 5. Fritz Thyssen, I Paid Hitler, 1941, reprinted in (Port Washington, N.Y.: Kennikat Press, 1972), p. 133. Thyssen says his contributions began with 100,000 marks given in October 1923, for Hitler's attempted `` putsch '' against the constitutional government. 6. Confidential memorandum from U.S. embassy, Berlin, to the U.S. Secretary of State, April 20, 1932, on microfilm in Confidential Reports of U.S. State Dept., 1930s, Germany, at major U.S. libraries. 7. Oct. 5, 1942, Memorandum to the Executive Committee of the Office of Alien Property Custodian, stamped CONFIDENTIAL, from the Division of Investigation and Research, Homer Jones, Chief. Now declassified in United States National Archives, Suitland, Maryland annex. See Record Group 131, Alien Property Custodian, investigative reports, in file box relating to Vesting Order No. 248. 8. Elimination of German Resources for War: Hearings Before a Subcommittee of the Committee on Military Affairs, United States Senate, Seventy-Ninth Congress; Part 5, Testimony of [the United States] Treasury Department, July 2, 1945. P. 507: Table of Vereinigte Stahlwerke output, figures are percent of German total as of 1938; Thyssen organization including Union Banking Corporation pp. 727-31. 9. Robert Sobel, The Life and Times of Dillon Read (New York: Dutton-Penguin, 1991), pp. 92-111. The Dillon Read firm cooperated in the development of Sobel's book. 10. George Walker to Averell Harriman, Aug. 11, 1927, in the W. Averell Harriman papers at the Library of Congress (designated hereafter WAH papers). 11. `` Iaccarino '' to G. H. Walker, RCA Radiogram Sept. 12, 1927. The specific nature of their business with Mussolini is not explained in correspondence available for public access. 12. Andrew Boyle, Montagu Norman (London: Cassell, 1967). Sir Henry Clay, Lord Norman (London, MacMillan & Co., 1957), pp. 18, 57, 70-71. John A. Kouwenhouven, Partners in Banking ... Brown Brothers Harriman (Garden City: Doubleday & Co., 1969). 13. Coordination of much of the Hitler project took place at a single New York address. The Union Banking Corporation had been set up by George Walker at 39 Broadway. Management of the Hamburg-Amerika Line, carried out through Harriman's American Ship and Commerce Corp., was also set up by George Walker at 39 Broadway. 14. Interrogation of Fritz Thyssen, EF/Me/1 of Sept. 4, 1945 in U.S. Control Council records, photostat on page 167 in Anthony Sutton, An Introduction to The Order (Billings, Mt.: Liberty House Press, 1986). 15. Nazi Conspiracy and Aggression--Supplement B, by the Office of United States Chief of Counsel for Prosecution of Axis Criminality, United States Government Printing Office, (Washington: 1948), pp. 1597, 1686. 16. `` Consolidated Silesian Steel Corporation - [minutes of the] Meeting of Board of Directors, '' Oct. 31, 1930 (Harriman papers, Library of Congress), shows Averell Harriman as Chairman of the Board. Prescott Bush to W.A. Harriman, Memorandum Dec. 19, 1930 on their Harriman Fifteen Corp. Annual Report of United Konigs and Laura Steel and Iron Works for the year 1930 (Harriman papers, Library of Congress) lists `` Dr. Friedrich Flick ... Berlin '' and `` William Averell Harriman ... New York '' on the Board of Directors. `` Harriman Fifteen Corporation Securities Position February 28, 1931, '' Harriman papers, Library of Congress. This report shows Harriman Fifteen Corporation holding 32,576 shares in Silesian Holding Co. V.T.C. worth (in scarce depression dollars) $1,628,800, just over half the value of the Harriman Fifteen Corporation's total holdings. The New York City Directory of Directors volumes for the 1930s (available at the Library of Congress) show Prescott Sheldon Bush and W. Averell Harriman as the directors of Harriman Fifteen Corp. `` Appointments, '' (three typed pages) marked `` Noted May 18 1931 W.A.H., '' (among the papers from Prescott Bush's New York Office of Brown Brothers Harriman, Harriman papers, Library of Congress), lists a meeting between Averell Harriman and Friedrich Flick in Berlin at 4:00 P.M., Wednesday April 22, 1931. This was followed immediately by a meeting with Wilhelm Cuno, chief executive of the Hamburg-Amerika Line. The `` Report To the Stockholders of the Harriman Fifteen Corporation, '' Oct. 19, 1933 (in the Harriman papers, Library of Congress) names G.H. Walker as president of the corporation. It shows the Harriman Fifteen Corporation's address as 1 Wall Street--the location of G.H. Walker and Co. 17. Nazi Conspiracy and Aggression--Supplement B, op. cit., p. 1686. 18. Jim Flaherty (a BBH manager, Prescott Bush's employee), March 19, 1934 to W.A. Harriman. `` Dear Averell: In Roland's absence Pres[cott] thought it advisable for me to let you know that we received the following cable from [our European representative] Rossi dated March 17th [relating to conflict with the Polish government]....'' 19. Harriman Fifteen Corporation notice to stockholders Jan. 7, 1935, under the name of George Walker, President. 20. Order No. 370: Silesian-American Corp. Executed Nov. 17, 1942. Signed by Leo T. Crowley, Alien Property Custodian. F.R. Doc. 42-14183; Filed Dec. 31, 1942, 11:28 A.M.; 8 Fed. Reg. 33 (Jan. 1, 1943). The order confiscated the Nazis' holdings of 98,000 shares of common and 50,000 shares of preferred stock in Silesian-American. The Nazi parent company in Breslau, Germany wrote directly to Averell Harriman at 59 Wall St. on Aug. 5, 1940, with `` an invitation to take part in the regular meeting of the members of the Bergwerksgesellsc[h]aft Georg von Giesche's Erben.... '' WAH papers. 21. Sept. 25, 1942, Memorandum To the Executive Committee of the Office of Alien Property Custodian, stamped CONFIDENTIAL, from the Division of Investigation and Research, Homer Jones, Chief. Now declassified in United States National Archives, Suitland, Maryland annex. See Record Group 131, Alien Property Custodian, investigative reports, in file box relating to Vesting Order No. 370. 22. George Walker was a director of American Ship and Commerce from its organization through 1928. Consult New York City Directory of Directors. `` Harriman Fifteen Corporation Securities Position February 28, 1931, '' op. cit. The report lists 46,861 shares in the American Ship & Commerce Corp. See `` Message from Mr. Bullfin, '' Aug. 30, 1934 (Harriman Fifteen section, Harriman papers, Library of Congress) for the joint supervision of Bush and Walker, respectively director and president of the corporation. 23. Cuno was later exposed by Walter Funk, Third Reich Press Chief and Under Secretary of Propaganda, in Funk's postwar jail cell at Nuremberg; but Cuno had died just as Hitler was taking power. William L. Shirer, The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1960), p. 144. Nazi Conspiracy and Aggression--Supplement B, op. cit., p. 1688. 24. See `` Elimination of German Resources for War, '' op. cit., pp. 881-82 on Voegler. See Annual Report of the (Hamburg-Amerikanische-Packetfahrt-Aktien-Gesellschaft (Hapag or Hamburg-Amerika Line), March 1931, for the board of directors. A copy is in the New York Public Library Annex at 11th Avenue, Manhattan. 25. Nazi Conspiracy and Aggression--Supplement B, op. cit., pp. 1178, 1453-54, 1597, 1599. See `` Elimination of German Resources for War, '' op. cit., pp. 870-72 on Schroeder; p. 730 on Groeninger. 26. Annual Report of Hamburg-Amerika, op. cit. Baron Rudolph Schroeder, Sr. to Averell Harriman, Nov. 14, 1932. K[night] W[ooley] handwritten note and draft reply letter, Dec. 9, 1932. In his letter, Baron Rudolph refers to the family's American affiliate, J. Henry Schroder [name anglicized], of which Allen Dulles was a director, and his brother John Foster Dulles was the principal attorney. Baron Bruno Schroder of the British branch was adviser to Bank of England Governor Montagu Norman, and Baron Bruno's partner Frank Cyril Tiarks was Norman's co-director of the Bank of England throughout Norman's career. Kurt von Schroeder was Hjalmar Schacht's delegate to the Bank for International Settlements in Geneva, where many of the financial arrangements for the Nazi regime were made by Montagu Norman, Schacht and the Schroeders for several years of the Hitler regime right up to the outbreak of World War II. 27. Confidential memorandum from U.S. embassy, Berlin, op. cit. 28. U.S. Senate `` Nye Committee '' hearings, Sept. 14, 1934, pp. 1197-98, extracts from letters of Col. William N. Taylor, dated June 27, 1932 and Jan. 9, 1933. 29. American Ship and Commerce Corporation to Dr. Max Warburg, March 7, 1933. Max Warburg had brokered the sale of Hamburg-Amerika to Harriman and Walker in 1920. Max's brothers controlled the Kuhn Loeb investment banking house in New York, the firm which had staked old E.H. Harriman to his 1890s buyout of the giant Union Pacific Railroad. Max Warburg had long worked with Lord Milner and others of the racialist British Round Table concerning joint projects in Africa and Eastern Europe. He was an advisor to Hjalmar Schacht for several decades and was a top executive of Hitler's Reichsbank. The reader may consult David Farrer, The Warburgs: The Story of A Family (New York: Stein and Day, 1975). 30. Max Warburg, at M.M. Warburg and Co., Hamburg, to Averill [sic] Harriman, c/o Messrs. Brown Brothers Harriman & Co., 59 Wall Street, New York, N.Y., March 27, 1933. 31. This correspondence, and the joint statement of the Jewish organizations, are reproduced in Moshe R. Gottlieb, American Anti-Nazi Resistance, 1933-41: An Historical Analysis (New York: Ktav Publishing House, 1982). 32. Investigation of Nazi Propaganda Activities and Investigation of Certain Other Propaganda Activities: Public Hearings before A Subcommittee of the Special Committee on Un-American Activities, United States House of Representatives, Seventy Third Congress, New York City, July 9-12, 1934--Hearings No. 73-NY-7 (Washington: U.S. Govt. Printing Office, 1934). See testimony of Capt. Frederick C. Mensing, John Schroeder, Paul von Lilienfeld-Toal, and summaries by Committee members. See New York Times, July 16, 1933, p. 12, for organizing of Nazi Labor Front at North German Lloyd, leading to Hamburg-Amerika after merger. 33. American Ship and Commerce Corporation telegram to Rudolph Brinckmann at M.M. Warburg, June 12, 1936. Rudolph Brinckmann to Averell Harriman at 59 Wall St., June 20, 1936, with enclosed note transmitting Helfferich's letter. Reply to Dr. Rudolph Brinckmann c/o M.M. Warburg and Co, July 6, 1936, in the Harriman papers at the Library of Congress. The file copy of this letter carries no signature, but is presumably from Averell Harriman. 34. Office of Alien Property Custodian, Vesting Order No. 126. Signed by Leo T. Crowley, Alien Property Custodian, executed August 28, 1942. F.R. Doc. 42-8774; Filed September 4, 1942, 10:55 A.M.; 7 F.R. 7061 (No. 176, Sept. 5, 1942.) July 18, 1942, Memorandum To the Executive Committee of the Office of Alien Property Custodian, stamped CONFIDENTIAL, from the Division of Investigation and Research, Homer Jones, Chief. Now declassified in United States National Archives, Suitland, Maryland annex. See Record Group 131, Alien Property Custodian, investigative reports, in file box relating to Vesting Order No. 126. 35. New York Times, May 20, 1933. Leading up to this agreement is a telegram which somehow escaped the shredder and may be seen in the Harriman papers in the Library of Congress. It is addressed to Nazi official Hjalmar Schacht at the Mayflower Hotel, Washington, dated May 11, 1933: `` Much disappointed to have missed seeing you Tuesday afternoon.... I hope to see you either in Washington or New York before you sail. with my regards W.A. Harriman '' 36. Dulles to Bush letter and draft reply in WAH papers. 37. New York Times, Jan. 19, 1938.

http://www.legion.ca/GB/_legion1/000001ba.htm


THE VESTER REPORT 248

Trading with the Enemy – Bush Family

From the unauthorized Biography of George H Bush.

by Webster G. Tarpley & Anton Chaitkin

In October 1942, ten months after entering World War II, America was preparing its first assault against Nazi military forces. Prescott Bush was managing partner of Brown Brothers Harriman. His 18-year-old son George, the future U.S. President, had just begun training to become a naval pilot. On Oct. 20, 1942, the U.S. government ordered the seizure of Nazi German banking operations in New York City which were being conducted by Prescott Bush.
Under the Trading with the Enemy Act, the government took over the Union Banking Corporation, in which Bush was a director. The U.S. Alien Property Custodian seized Union Banking Corp.'s stock shares, all of which were owned by Prescott Bush, E. Roland `` Bunny '' Harriman, three Nazi executives, and two other associates of Bush.*1

The order seizing the bank `` vests '' (seizes) `` all of the capital stock of Union Banking Corporation, a New York corporation, '' and names the holders of its shares as:

`` E. Roland Harriman--3991 shares ''

[chairman and director of Union Banking Corp. (UBC); this is `` Bunny '' Harriman, described by Prescott Bush as a place holder who didn't get much into banking affairs; Prescott managed his personal investments]

`` Cornelis Lievense--4 shares ''

[president and director of UBC; New York resident banking functionary for the Nazis]

`` Harold D. Pennington--1 share ''

[treasurer and director of UBC; an office manager employed by Bush at Brown Brothers Harriman]

`` Ray Morris--1 share ''

[director of UBC; partner of Bush and the Harrimans]

`` Prescott S. Bush--1 share ''

[director of UBC, which was co-founded and sponsored by his father-in-law George Walker; senior managing partner for E. Roland Harriman and Averell Harriman]

`` H.J. Kouwenhoven--1 share ''

[director of UBC; organized UBC as the emissary of Fritz Thyssen in negotiations with George Walker and Averell Harriman; managing director of UBC's Netherlands affiliate under Nazi occupation; industrial executive in Nazi Germany; director and chief foreign financial executive of the German Steel Trust]

`` Johann G. Groeninger--1 share ''

[director of UBC and of its Netherlands affiliate; industrial executive in Nazi Germany]

`` all of which shares are held for the benefit of ... members of the Thyssen family, [and] is property of nationals ... of a designated enemy country.... ''

By Oct. 26, 1942, U.S. troops were under way for North Africa. On Oct. 28, the government issued orders seizing two Nazi front organizations run by the Bush-Harriman bank: the Holland-American Trading Corporation and the Seamless Steel Equipment Corporation.*2

U.S. forces landed under fire near Algiers on Nov. 8, 1942; heavy combat raged throughout November. Nazi interests in the Silesian-American Corporation, long managed by Prescott Bush and his father-in-law George Herbert Walker, were seized under the Trading with the Enemy Act on Nov. 17, 1942. In this action, the government announced that it was seizing only the Nazi interests, leaving the Nazis' U.S. partners to carry on the business.*3

These and other actions taken by the U.S. government in wartime were, tragically, too little and too late. President Bush's family had already played a central role in financing and arming Adolf Hitler for his takeover of Germany; in financing and managing the buildup of Nazi war industries for the conquest of Europe and war against the U.S.A.; and in the development of Nazi genocide theories and racial propaganda, with their well-known results.

The facts presented here must be known, and their implications reflected upon, for a proper understanding of President George Herbert Walker Bush and of the danger to mankind that he represents. The President's family fortune was largely a result of the Hitler project. The powerful Anglo-American family associations, which later boosted him into the Central Intelligence Agency and up to the White House, were his father's partners in the Hitler project.

President Franklin Roosevelt's Alien Property Custodian, Leo T. Crowley, signed Vesting Order Number 248 seizing the property of Prescott Bush under the Trading with the Enemy Act. The order, published in obscure government record books and kept out of the news,*4 explained nothing about the Nazis involved; only that the Union Banking Corporation was run for the `` Thyssen family '' of `` Germany and/or Hungary ''--`` nationals ... of a designated enemy country. ''

By deciding that Prescott Bush and the other directors of the Union Banking Corp. were legally front men for the Nazis, the government avoided the more important historical issue: In what way were Hitler's Nazis themselves hired, armed and instructed by the New York and London clique of which Prescott Bush was an executive manager? Let us examine the Harriman-Bush Hitler project from the 1920s until it was partially broken up, to seek an answer for that question.

Origin and Extent of the Project

Fritz Thyssen and his business partners are universally recognized as the most important German financiers of Adolf Hitler's takeover of Germany. At the time of the order seizing the Thyssen family's Union Banking Corp., Mr. Fritz Thyssen had already published his famous book, I Paid Hitler,*5 admitting that he had financed Adolf Hitler and the Nazi movement since October 1923. Thyssen's role as the leading early backer of Hitler's grab for power in Germany had been noted by U.S. diplomats in Berlin in 1932.*6 The order seizing the Bush-Thyssen bank was curiously quiet and modest about the identity of the perpetrators who had been nailed.

But two weeks before the official order, government investigators had reported secretly that `` W. Averell Harriman was in Europe sometime prior to 1924 and at that time became acquainted with Fritz Thyssen, the German industrialist. '' Harriman and Thyssen agreed to set up a bank for Thyssen in New York. `` [Certain of Harriman's] associates would serve as directors.... '' Thyssen agent `` H. J. Kouwenhoven ... came to the United States ... prior to 1924 for conferences with the Harriman Company in this connection.... ''*7

When exactly was `` Harriman in Europe sometime prior to 1924 ''? In fact, he was in Berlin in 1922 to set up the Berlin branch of W.A. Harriman & Co. under George Walker's presidency.

The Union Banking Corporation was established formally in 1924, as a unit in the Manhattan offices of W.A. Harriman & Co., interlocking with the Thyssen-owned Bank voor Handel en Scheepvaart (BHS) in the Netherlands. The investigators concluded that `` the Union Banking Corporation has since its inception handled funds chiefly supplied to it through the Dutch bank by the Thyssen interests for American investment. ''

Thus by personal agreement between Averell Harriman and Fritz Thyssen in 1922, W.A. Harriman & Co. (alias Union Banking Corporation) would be transferring funds back and forth between New York and the `` Thyssen interests '' in Germany. By putting up about $400,000, the Harriman organization would be joint owner and manager of Thyssen's banking operations outside of Germany.

How important was the Nazi enterprise for which President Bush's father was the New York banker?

The 1942 U.S. government investigative report said that Bush's Nazi-front bank was an interlocking concern with the Vereinigte Stahlwerke (United Steel Works Corporation or German Steel Trust) led by Fritz Thyssen and his two brothers. After the war, Congressional investigators probed the Thyssen interests, Union Banking Corp. and related Nazi units. The investigation showed that the Vereinigte Stahlwerke had produced the following approximate proportions of total German national output:

50.8% of Nazi Germany's pig iron

41.4% of Nazi Germany's universal plate
36.0% of Nazi Germany's heavy plate

38.5% of Nazi Germany's galvanized sheet

45.5% of Nazi Germany's pipes and tubes

22.1% of Nazi Germany's wire
35.0% of Nazi Germany's explosives. *8

Prescott Bush became vice president of W.A. Harriman and Co. in 1926. That same year, a friend of Harriman and Bush set up a giant new organization for their client Fritz Thyssen, prime sponsor of politician Adolf Hitler. The new German Steel Trust, Germany's largest industrial corporation, was organized in 1926 by Wall Street banker Clarence Dillon. Dillon was the old comrade of Prescott Bush's father Sam Bush from the `` Merchants of Death '' bureau in World War I.

In return for putting up $70 million to create his organization, majority owner Thyssen gave the Dillon Read company two or more representatives on the board of the new Steel Trust. *9

Thus there is a division of labor: Thyssen's own confidential accounts, for political and related purposes, were run through the Walker-Bush organization; the German Steel Trust did its corporate banking through Dillon Read.

The Walker-Bush firm's banking activities were not just politically neutral money-making ventures which happened to coincide with the aims of German Nazis. All of the firm's European business in those days was organized around anti-democratic political forces.

In 1927, criticism of their support for totalitarianism drew this retort from Bert Walker, written from Kennebunkport to Averell Harriman: `` It seems to me that the suggestion in connection with Lord Bearsted's views that we withdraw from Russia smacks somewhat of the impertinent.... I think that we have drawn our line and should hew to it. ''*10

Averell Harriman met with Italy's fascist dictator, Benito Mussolini. A representative of the firm subsequently telegraphed good news back to his chief executive Bert Walker: `` ... During these last days ... Mussolini ... has examined and approved our contract 15 June. ''*11

The great financial collapse of 1929-31 shook America, Germany and Britain, weakening all governments. It also made the hard-pressed Prescott Bush even more willing to do whatever was necessary to retain his new place in the world. It was in this crisis that certain Anglo-Americans determined on the installation of a Hitler regime in Germany.

W.A. Harriman & Co., well-positioned for this enterprise and rich in assets from their German and Russian business, merged with the British-American investment house, Brown Brothers, on January 1, 1931. Bert Walker retired to his own G.H. Walker & Co. This left the Harriman brothers, Prescott Bush and Thatcher M. Brown as the senior partners of the new Brown Brothers Harriman firm. (The London, England branch of the Brown family firm continued operating under its historic name--Brown, Shipley.)

Robert A. Lovett also came over as a partner from Brown Brothers. His father, E.H. Harriman's lawyer and railroad chief, had been on the War Industries Board with Prescott's father. Though he remained a partner in Brown Brothers Harriman, the junior Lovett soon replaced his father as chief executive of Union Pacific Railroad.

Brown Brothers had a racial tradition that fitted it well for the Hitler project! American patriots had cursed its name back in U.S. Civil War days. Brown Brothers, with offices in the U.S.A. and in England, had carried on their ships fully 75 percent of the slave cotton from the American South over to British mill owners. Now in 1931, the virtual dictator of world finance, Bank of England Governor Montagu Collet Norman, was a former Brown Brothers partner, whose grandfather had been boss of Brown Brothers during the U.S. Civil War. Montagu Norman was known as the most avid of Hitler's supporters within British ruling circles, and Norman's intimacy with this firm was essential to his management of the Hitler project.

In 1931, while Prescott Bush ran the New York office of Brown Brothers Harriman, Prescott's partner was Montagu Norman's intimate friend Thatcher Brown. The Bank of England chief always stayed at the home of Prescott's partner on his hush-hush trips to New York. Prescott Bush concentrated on the firm's German activities, and Thatcher Brown saw to their business in old England, under the guidance of his mentor Montagu Norman.*12

Hitler's Ladder to Power

Adolf Hitler became Chancellor of Germany January 30, 1933, and absolute dictator in March 1933, after two years of expensive and violent lobbying and electioneering. Two affiliates of the Bush-Harriman organization played great parts in this criminal undertaking: Thyssen's German Steel Trust; and the Hamburg-Amerika Line and several of its executives.*13

Let us look more closely at the Bush family's German partners.

Fritz Thyssen told Allied interrogators after the war about some of his financial support for the Nazi Party: `` In 1930 or 1931 ... I told [Hitler's deputy Rudolph] Hess ... I would arrange a credit for him with a Dutch bank in Rotterdam, the Bank fuhaur Handel und Schiff [i.e. Bank voor Handel en Scheepvaart (BHS), the Harriman-Bush affiliate]. I arranged the credit ... he would pay it back in three years.... I chose a Dutch bank because I did not want to be mixed up with German banks in my position, and because I thought it was better to do business with a Dutch bank, and I thought I would have the Nazis a little more in my hands... .

`` The credit was about 250-300,000 [gold] marks--about the sum I had given before. The loan has been repaid in part to the Dutch bank, but I think some money is still owing on it.... ''*14

The overall total of Thyssen's political donations and loans to the Nazis was well over a million dollars, including funds he raised from others--in a period of terrible money shortage in Germany.

Friedrich Flick was the major co-owner of the German Steel Trust with Fritz Thyssen, Thyssen's long-time collaborator and occasional competitor. In preparation for the war crimes tribunal at Nuremberg, the U.S. government said that Flick was `` one of leading financiers and industrialists who from 1932 contributed large sums to the Nazi Party ... member of `Circle of Friends' of Himmler who contributed large sums to the SS. ''*15

Flick, like Thyssen, financed the Nazis to maintain their private armies called Schutzstaffel (S.S. or Black Shirts) and Sturmabteilung (S.A., storm troops or Brown Shirts).

The Flick-Harriman partnership was directly supervised by Prescott Bush, President Bush's father, and by George Walker, President Bush's grandfather.

The Harriman-Walker Union Banking Corp. arrangements for the German Steel Trust had made them bankers for Flick and his vast operations in Germany by no later than 1926.

The Harriman Fifteen Corporation (George Walker, president, Prescott Bush and Averell Harriman, sole directors) held a substantial stake in the Silesian Holding Co. at the time of the merger with Brown Brothers, Jan. 1, 1931. This holding correlated to Averell Harriman's chairmanship of the Consolidated Silesian Steel Corporation, the American group owning one-third of a complex of steel-making, coal-mining and zinc-mining activities in Germany and Poland, in which Friedrich Flick owned two-thirds.*16

The Nuremberg prosecutor characterized Flick as follows:

`` Proprietor and head of a large group of industrial enterprises (coal and iron mines, steel producing and fabricating plants) ... `Wehrwirtschaftsfuh@aurer', 1938 [title awarded to prominent industrialists for merit in armaments drive--`Military Economy Leader'].... ''*17

For this buildup of the Hitler war machine with coal, steel and arms production, using slave laborers, the Nazi Flick was condemned to seven years in prison at the Nuremberg trials; he served three years. With friends in New York and London, however, Flick lived into the 1970s and died a billionaire.

On March 19, 1934, Prescott Bush--then director of the German Steel Trust's Union Banking Corporation--initiated an alert to the absent Averell Harriman about a problem which had developed in the Flick partnership.*18 Bush sent Harriman a clipping from the New York Times of that day, which reported that the Polish government was fighting back against American and German stockholders who controlled `` Poland's largest industrial unit, the Upper Silesian Coal and Steel Company.... ''

The Times article continued: `` The company has long been accused of mismanagement, excessive borrowing, fictitious bookkeeping and gambling in securities. Warrants were issued in December for several directors accused of tax evasions. They were German citizens and they fled. They were replaced by Poles. Herr Flick, regarding this as an attempt to make the company's board entirely Polish, retaliated by restricting credits until the new Polish directors were unable to pay the workmen regularly. ''

The Times noted that the company's mines and mills `` employ 25,000 men and account for 45 percent of Poland's total steel output and 12 percent of her coal production. Two-thirds of the company's stock is owned by Friedrich Flick, a leading German steel industrialist, and the remainder is owned by interests in the United States. ''

In view of the fact that a great deal of Polish output was being exported to Hitler Germany under depression conditions, the Polish government thought that Prescott Bush, Harriman and their Nazi partners should at least pay full taxes on their Polish holdings. The U.S. and Nazi owners responded with a lockout. The letter to Harriman in Washington reported a cable from their European representative: `` Have undertaken new steps London Berlin ... please establish friendly relations with Polish Ambassador [in Washington]. ''

A 1935 Harriman Fifteen Corporation memo from George Walker announced an agreement had been made `` in Berlin '' to sell an 8,000 block of their shares in Consolidated Silesian Steel.*19 But the dispute with Poland did not deter the Bush family from continuing its partnership with Flick.

Nazi tanks and bombs `` settled '' this dispute in September, 1939 with the invasion of Poland, beginning World War II. The Nazi army had been equipped by Flick, Harriman, Walker and Bush, with materials essentially stolen from Poland.

There were probably few people at the time who could appreciate the irony, that when the Soviets also attacked and invaded Poland from the East, their vehicles were fueled by oil pumped from Baku wells revived by the Harriman/Walker/Bush enterprise.

Three years later, nearly a year after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, the U.S. government ordered the seizure of the Nazis' share in the Silesian-American Corporation under the Trading with the Enemy Act. Enemy nationals were said to own 49 percent of the common stock and 41.67 percent of the preferred stock of the company.
The order characterized the company as a `` business enterprise within the United States, owned by [a front company in] Zurich, Switzerland, and held for the benefit of Bergwerksgesellschaft George von Giesche's Erben, a German corporation.... ''*20

Bert Walker was still the senior director of the company, which he had founded back in 1926 simultaneously with the creation of the German Steel Trust. Ray Morris, Prescott's partner from Union Banking Corp. and Brown Brothers Harriman, was also a director.

The investigative report prior to the government crackdown explained the `` NATURE OF BUSINESS: The subject corporation is an American holding company for German and Polish subsidiaries, which own large and valuable coal and zinc mines in Silesia, Poland and Germany. Since September 1939, these properties have been in the possession of and have been operated by the German government and have undoubtedly been of considerable assistance to that country in its war effort. ''*21

The report noted that the American stockholders hoped to regain control of the European properties after the war.

Control of Nazi Commerce

Bert Walker had arranged the credits Harriman needed to take control of the Hamburg-Amerika Line back in 1920. Walker had organized the American Ship and Commerce Corp. as a unit of the W.A. Harriman & Co., with contractual power over Hamburg-Amerika's affairs.

As the Hitler project went into high gear, Harriman-Bush shares in American Ship and Commerce Corp. were held by the Harriman Fifteen Corp., run by Prescott Bush and Bert Walker.*22

It was a convenient stroll for the well-tanned, athletic, handsome Prescott Bush: From the Brown Brothers Harriman skyscraper at 59 Wall Street--where he was senior managing partner, confidential investments manager and adviser to Averell and his brother `` Bunny ''--he walked across to the Harriman Fifteen Corporation at One Wall Street, otherwise known as G.H. Walker & Co.--and around the corner to his subsidiary offices at 39 Broadway, former home of the old W.A. Harriman & Co., and still the offices for American Ship and Commerce Corp., and of the Union Banking Corporation.

In many ways, Bush's Hamburg-Amerika Line was the pivot for the entire Hitler project.

Averell Harriman and Bert Walker had gained control over the steamship company in 1920 in negotiations with its post-World War I chief executive, Wilhelm Cuno, and with the line's bankers, M.M. Warburg. Cuno was thereafter completely dependent on the Anglo-Americans, and became a member of the Anglo-German Friendship Society. In the 1930-32 drive for a Hitler dictatorship, Wilhelm Cuno contributed important sums to the Nazi Party.*23

Albert Voegler was chief executive of the Thyssen-Flick German Steel Trust for which Bush's Union Banking Corp. was the New York office. He was a director of the Bush-affiliate BHS Bank in Rotterdam, and a director of the Harriman-Bush Hamburg-Amerika Line. Voegler joined Thyssen and Flick in their heavy 1930-33 Nazi contributions, and helped organize the final Nazi leap into national power.*24

The Schroeder family of bankers was a linchpin for the Nazi activities of Harriman and Prescott Bush, closely tied to their lawyers Allen and John Foster Dulles.
Baron Kurt von Schroeder was co-director of the massive Thyssen-Hubautte foundry along with Johann Groeninger, Prescott Bush's New York bank partner. Kurt von Schroeder was treasurer of the support organization for the Nazi Party's private armies, to which Friedrich Flick contributed. Kurt von Schroeder and Montagu Norman's prote@aage@aa Hjalmar Schacht together made the final arrangements for Hitler to enter the government.*25

Baron Rudolph von Schroeder was vice president and director of the Hamburg-Amerika Line. Long an intimate contact of Averell Harriman's in Germany, Baron Rudolph sent his grandson Baron Johann Rudolph for a tour of Prescott Bush's Brown Brothers Harriman offices in New York City in December 1932--on the eve of their Hitler-triumph.*26

Certain actions taken directly by the Harriman-Bush shipping line in 1932 must be ranked among the gravest acts of treason in this century.

The U.S. embassy in Berlin reported back to Washington that the `` costly election campaigns '' and `` the cost of maintaining a private army of 300,000 to 400,000 men '' had raised questions as to the Nazis' financial backers. The constitutional government of the German republic moved to defend national freedom by ordering the Nazi Party private armies disbanded. The U.S. embassy reported that the Hamburg-Amerika Line was purchasing and distributing propaganda attacks against the German government, for attempting this last-minute crackdown on Hitler's forces.*27

Thousands of German opponents of Hitlerism were shot or intimidated by privately armed Nazi Brown Shirts. In this connection we note that the original `` Merchant of Death, '' Samuel Pryor, was a founding director of both the Union Banking Corp. and the American Ship and Commerce Corp. Since Mr. Pryor was executive committee chairman of Remington Arms and a central figure in the world's private arms traffic, his use to the Hitler project was enhanced as the Bush family's partner in Nazi Party banking and trans-Atlantic shipping.

The U.S. Senate arms-traffic investigators probed Remington after it was joined in a cartel agreement on explosives to the Nazi firm I.G. Farben. Looking at the period leading up to Hitler's seizure of power, the Senators found that `` German political associations, like the Nazi and others, are nearly all armed with American ... guns.... Arms of all kinds coming from America are transshipped in the Scheldt to river barges before the vessels arrive in Antwerp. They then can be carried through Holland without police inspection or interference. The Hitlerists and Communists are presumed to get arms in this manner. The principal arms coming from America are Thompson submachine guns and revolvers. The number is great. ''*28

The beginning of the Hitler regime brought some bizarre changes to the Hamburg-Amerika Line--and more betrayals.

Prescott Bush's American Ship and Commerce Corp. notified Max Warburg of Hamburg, Germany, on March 7, 1933, that Warburg was to be the corporation's official, designated representative on the board of Hamburg-Amerika.*29

Max Warburg replied on March 27, 1933, assuring his American sponsors that the Hitler government was good for Germany: `` For the last few years business was considerably better than we had anticipated, but a reaction is making itself felt for some months. We are actually suffering also under the very active propaganda against Germany, caused by some unpleasant circumstances. These occurrences were the natural consequence of the very excited election campaign, but were extraordinarily exaggerated in the foreign press. The Government is firmly resolved to maintain public peace and order in Germany, and I feel perfectly convinced in this respect that there is no cause for any alarm whatsoever. ''*30

This seal of approval for Hitler, coming from a famous Jew, was just what Harriman and Bush required, for they anticipated rather serious `` alarm '' inside the U.S.A. against their Nazi operations.

On March 29, 1933, two days after Max's letter to Harriman, Max's son, Erich Warburg, sent a cable to his cousin Frederick M. Warburg, a director of the Harriman railroad system. He asked Frederick to `` use all your influence '' to stop all anti-Nazi activity in America, including `` atrocity news and unfriendly propaganda in foreign press, mass meetings, etc. '' Frederick cabled back to Erich: `` No responsible groups here [are] urging [a] boycott [of] German goods[,] merely excited individuals. '' Two days after that, On March 31, 1933, the American-Jewish Committee, controlled by the Warburgs, and the B'nai B'rith, heavily influenced by the Sulzbergers (New York Times), issued a formal, official joint statement of the two organizations, counseling `` that no American boycott against Germany be encouraged, '' and advising `` that no further mass meetings be held or similar forms of agitation be employed. ''*31

The American Jewish Committee and the B'nai B'rith (mother of the `` Anti-Defamation League '') continued with this hardline, no-attack-on-Hitler stance all through the 1930s, blunting the fight mounted by many Jews and other anti-fascists.

Thus the decisive interchange reproduced above, taking place entirely within the orbit of the Harriman/Bush firm, may explain something of the relationship of George Bush to American Jewish and Zionist leaders. Some of them, in close cooperation with his family, played an ugly part in the drama of Naziism. Is this why `` professional Nazi-hunters '' have never discovered how the Bush family made its money?

The executive board of the Hamburg Amerika Line (Hapag) met jointly with the North German Lloyd Company board in Hamburg on Sept. 5, 1933. Under official Nazi supervision, the two firms were merged. Prescott Bush's American Ship and Commerce Corp. installed Christian J. Beck, a long-time Harriman executive, as manager of freight and operations in North America for the new joint Nazi shipping lines (Hapag-Lloyd) on Nov. 4, 1933.

According to testimony of officials of the companies before Congress in 1934, a supervisor from the Nazi Labor Front rode with every ship of the Harriman-Bush line; employees of the New York offices were directly organized into the Nazi Labor Front organization; Hamburg-Amerika provided free passage to individuals going abroad for Nazi propaganda purposes; and the line subsidized pro-Nazi newspapers in the U.S.A., as it had done in Germany against the constitutional German government.*32

In mid-1936, Prescott Bush's American Ship and Commerce Corp. cabled M.M. Warburg, asking Warburg to represent the company's heavy share interest at the forthcoming Hamburg-Amerika stockholders meeting. The Warburg office replied with the information that `` we represented you '' at the stockholders meeting and `` exercised on your behalf your voting power for Rm [gold marks] 3,509,600 Hapag stock deposited with us. ''

The Warburgs transmitted a letter received from Emil Helfferich, German chief executive of both Hapag-Lloyd and of the Standard Oil subsidiary in Nazi Germany: `` It is the intention to continue the relations with Mr. Harriman on the same basis as heretofore.... '' In a colorful gesture, Hapag's Nazi chairman Helfferich sent the line's president across the Atlantic on a Zeppelin to confer with their New York string-pullers.

After the meeting with the Zeppelin passenger, the Harriman-Bush office replied: `` I am glad to learn that Mr. Hellferich [sic] has stated that relations between the Hamburg American Line and ourselves will be continued on the same basis as heretofore. ''*33

Two months before moving against Prescott Bush's Union Banking Corporation, the U. S. government ordered the seizure of all property of the Hamburg-Amerika Line and North German Lloyd, under the Trading with the Enemy Act. The investigators noted in the pre-seizure report that Christian J. Beck was still acting as an attorney representing the Nazi firm.*34

In May 1933, just after the Hitler regime was consolidated, an agreement was reached in Berlin for the coordination of all Nazi commerce with the U.S.A. The Harriman International Co., led by Averell Harriman's first cousin Oliver, was to head a syndicate of 150 firms and individuals, to conduct all exports from Hitler Germany to the United States.*35

This pact had been negotiated in Berlin between Hitler's economics minister, Hjalmar Schacht, and John Foster Dulles, international attorney for dozens of Nazi enterprises, with the counsel of Max Warburg and Kurt von Schroeder.

John Foster Dulles would later be U.S. Secretary of State, and the great power in the Republican Party of the 1950s. Foster's friendship and that of his brother Allen (head of the Central Intelligence Agency), greatly aided Prescott Bush to become the Republican U.S. Senator from Connecticut. And it was to be of inestimable value to George Bush, in his ascent to the heights of `` covert action government, '' that both of these Dulles brothers were the lawyers for the Bush family's far-flung enterprise.

Throughout the 1930s, John Foster Dulles arranged debt restructuring for German firms under a series of decrees issued by Adolf Hitler. In these deals, Dulles struck a balance between the interest owed to selected, larger investors, and the needs of the growing Nazi war-making apparatus for producing tanks, poison gas, etc.

Dulles wrote to Prescott Bush in 1937 concerning one such arrangement. The German-Atlantic Cable Company, owning Nazi Germany's only telegraph channel to the United States, had made debt and management agreements with the Walker-Harriman bank during the 1920s. A new decree would now void those agreements, which had originally been reached with non-Nazi corporate officials. Dulles asked Bush, who managed these affairs for Averell Harriman, to get Averell's signature on a letter to Nazi officials, agreeing to the changes. Dulles wrote:

Sept. 22, 1937

Mr. Prescott S. Bush

59 Wall Street, New York, N.Y.

Dear Press,

I have looked over the letter of the German-American [sic] Cable Company to Averell Harriman.... It would appear that the only rights in the matter are those which inure in the bankers and that no legal embarrassment would result, so far as the bondholders are concerned, by your acquiescence in the modification of the bankers' agreement.

Sincerely yours,

John Foster Dulles

Dulles enclosed a proposed draft reply, Bush got Harriman's signature, and the changes went through.*36

In conjunction with these arrangements, the German Atlantic Cable Company attempted to stop payment on its debts to smaller American bondholders. The money was to be used instead for arming the Nazi state, under a decree of the Hitler government.

Despite the busy efforts of Bush and Dulles, a New York court decided that this particular Hitler `` law '' was invalid in the United States; small bondholders, not parties to deals between the bankers and the Nazis, were entitled to get paid.*37

In this and a few other of the attempted swindles, the intended victims came out with their money. But the Nazi financial and political reorganization went ahead to its tragic climax.

For his part in the Hitler revolution, Prescott Bush was paid a fortune.

This is the legacy he left to his son, President George Bush.

An Important Historical Note:
How the Harrimans Hired Hitler

It was not inevitable that millions would be slaughtered under fascism and in World War II. At certain moments of crisis, crucial pro-Nazi decisions were made outside of Germany. These decisions for pro-Nazi actions were more aggressive than the mere `` appeasement '' which Anglo-American historians later preferred to discuss.

Private armies of 300,000 to 400,000 terrorists aided the Nazis' rise to power. W.A. Harriman's Hamburg-Amerika Line intervened against Germany's 1932 attempt to break them up.

The 1929-31 economic collapse bankrupted the Wall-Street-backed German Steel Trust. When the German government took over the Trust's stock shares, interests associated with Konrad Adenauer and the anti-Nazi Catholic Center Party attempted to acquire the shares. But the Anglo-Americans--Montagu Norman, and the Harriman-Bush bank--made sure that their Nazi puppet Fritz Thyssen regained control over the shares and the Trust. Thyssen's bankrolling of Hitler could then continue unhindered.

Unpayable debts crushed Germany in the 1920s, reparations required by the Versailles agreements. Germany was looted by the London-New York banking system, and Hitler's propaganda exploited this German debt burden.

But immediately after Germany came under Hitler's dictatorship, the Anglo-American financiers granted debt relief, which freed funds to be used for arming the Nazi state.

The North German Lloyd steamship line, which was merged with Hamburg-Amerika Line, was one of the companies which stopped debt payments under a Hitler decree arranged by John Foster Dulles and Hjalmar Schacht.

Kuhn Loeb and Co.'s Felix Warburg carried out the Hitler finance plan in New York. Kuhn Loeb asked North German Lloyd bondholders to accept new lower interest steamship bonds, issued by Kuhn Loeb, in place of the better pre-Hitler bonds.

The Opposition

New York attorney Jacob Chaitkin, father of coauthor Anton Chaitkin, took the cases of many different bondholders who rejected the swindle by Harriman, Bush, Warburg, and Hitler. Representing a women who was owed $30 on an old steamship bond--and opposing John Foster Dulles in New York municipal court--Chaitkin threatened a writ from the sheriff, tying up the 30,000 ton transatlantic liner Europa until the client received her $30. (New York Times, January 10, 1934, p. 31 col. 3).

The American Jewish Congress hired Jacob Chaitkin as the legal director of the boycott against Nazi Germany. The American Federation of Labor cooperated with Jewish and other groups in the anti-import boycott. On the other side, virtually all the Nazi trade with the United States was under the supervision of the Harriman interests and functionaries such as Prescott Bush, father of President George Bush.

Meanwhile, the Warburgs demanded that American Jews not `` agitate '' against the Hitler government, or join the organized boycott. The Warburgs' decision was carried out by the American Jewish Committee and the B'nai B'rith, who opposed the boycott as the Nazi military state grew increasingly powerful.

The historical coverup on these events is so tight that virtually the only expose of the Warburgs came in journalist John L. Spivak's `` Wall Street's Fascist Conspiracy, '' in the pro-communist New Masses periodical (Jan. 29 and Feb. 5, 1934). Spivak pointed out that the Warburgs controlled the American Jewish Committee, which opposed the anti-Nazi boycott, while their Kuhn Loeb and Co. had underwritten Nazi shipping; and he exposed the financing of pro-fascist political activities by the Warburgs and their partners and allies, many of whom were bigwigs in the American Jewish Committee and B'nai B'rith.

Given where the Spivak piece appeared, it is not surprising that Spivak called Warburg an ally of the Morgan Bank, but made no mention of Averell Harriman. Mr. Harriman, after all, was a permanent hero of the Soviet Union.

John L. Spivak later underwent a curious transformation, himself joining the coverup. In 1967, he wrote an autobiography (A Man in His Time, New York: Horizon Press), which praises the American Jewish Committee. The pro-fascism of the Warburgs does not appear in the book. The former `` rebel '' Spivak also praises the action arm of the B'nai B'rith, the Anti-Defamation League. Pathetically, he comments favorably that the League has spy files on the American populace which it shares with government agencies.

Thus is history erased; and those decisions, which direct history into one course or another, are lost to the knowledge of the current generation.

Return to the Table of Contents

NOTES:
1. Office of Alien Property Custodian, Vesting Order No. 248. The order was signed by Leo T. Crowley, Alien Property Custodian, executed October 20, 1942; F.R. Doc. 42-11568; Filed, November 6, 1942, 11:31 A.M.; 7 Fed. Reg. 9097 (Nov. 7, 1942). See also the New York City Directory of Directors (available at the Library of Congress). The volumes for the 1930s and 1940s list Prescott Bush as a director of Union Banking Corporation for the years 1934 through 1943.
2. Alien Property Custodian Vesting Order No. 259: Seamless Steel Equipment Corporation; Vesting Order No. 261: Holland-American Trading Corp.
3. Alien Property Custodian Vesting Order No. 370: Silesian-American Corp.
4. The New York Times on December 16, 1944, ran a five-paragraph page 25 article on actions of the New York State Banking Department. Only the last sentence refers to the Nazi bank, as follows: `` The Union Banking Corporation, 39 Broadway, New York, has received authority to change its principal place of business to 120 Broadway. ''
The Times omitted the fact that the Union Banking Corporation had been seized by the government for trading with the enemy, and even the fact that 120 Broadway was the address of the government's Alien Property Custodian.
5. Fritz Thyssen, I Paid Hitler, 1941, reprinted in (Port Washington, N.Y.: Kennikat Press, 1972), p. 133. Thyssen says his contributions began with 100,000 marks given in October 1923, for Hitler's attempted `` putsch '' against the constitutional government.
6. Confidential memorandum from U.S. embassy, Berlin, to the U.S. Secretary of State, April 20, 1932, on microfilm in Confidential Reports of U.S. State Dept., 1930s, Germany, at major U.S. libraries.
7. Oct. 5, 1942, Memorandum to the Executive Committee of the Office of Alien Property Custodian, stamped CONFIDENTIAL, from the Division of Investigation and Research, Homer Jones, Chief. Now declassified in United States National Archives, Suitland, Maryland annex. See Record Group 131, Alien Property Custodian, investigative reports, in file box relating to Vesting Order No. 248.
8. Elimination of German Resources for War: Hearings Before a Subcommittee of the Committee on Military Affairs, United States Senate, Seventy-Ninth Congress; Part 5, Testimony of [the United States] Treasury Department, July 2, 1945. P. 507: Table of Vereinigte Stahlwerke output, figures are percent of German total as of 1938; Thyssen organization including Union Banking Corporation pp. 727-31.
9. Robert Sobel, The Life and Times of Dillon Read (New York: Dutton-Penguin, 1991), pp. 92-111. The Dillon Read firm cooperated in the development of Sobel's book.
10. George Walker to Averell Harriman, Aug. 11, 1927, in the W. Averell Harriman papers at the Library of Congress (designated hereafter WAH papers).
11. `` Iaccarino '' to G. H. Walker, RCA Radiogram Sept. 12, 1927. The specific nature of their business with Mussolini is not explained in correspondence available for public access.
12. Andrew Boyle, Montagu Norman (London: Cassell, 1967).
Sir Henry Clay, Lord Norman (London, MacMillan & Co., 1957), pp. 18, 57, 70-71.
John A. Kouwenhouven, Partners in Banking ... Brown Brothers Harriman (Garden City: Doubleday & Co., 1969).
13. Coordination of much of the Hitler project took place at a single New York address. The Union Banking Corporation had been set up by George Walker at 39 Broadway. Management of the Hamburg-Amerika Line, carried out through Harriman's American Ship and Commerce Corp., was also set up by George Walker at 39 Broadway.
14. Interrogation of Fritz Thyssen, EF/Me/1 of Sept. 4, 1945 in U.S. Control Council records, photostat on page 167 in Anthony Sutton, An Introduction to The Order (Billings, Mt.: Liberty House Press, 1986).
15. Nazi Conspiracy and Aggression--Supplement B, by the Office of United States Chief of Counsel for Prosecution of Axis Criminality, United States Government Printing Office, (Washington: 1948), pp. 1597, 1686.
16. `` Consolidated Silesian Steel Corporation - [minutes of the] Meeting of Board of Directors, '' Oct. 31, 1930 (Harriman papers, Library of Congress), shows Averell Harriman as Chairman of the Board.
Prescott Bush to W.A. Harriman, Memorandum Dec. 19, 1930 on their Harriman Fifteen Corp.
Annual Report of United Konigs and Laura Steel and Iron Works for the year 1930 (Harriman papers, Library of Congress) lists `` Dr. Friedrich Flick ... Berlin '' and `` William Averell Harriman ... New York '' on the Board of Directors.
`` Harriman Fifteen Corporation Securities Position February 28, 1931, '' Harriman papers, Library of Congress. This report shows Harriman Fifteen Corporation holding 32,576 shares in Silesian Holding Co. V.T.C. worth (in scarce depression dollars) $1,628,800, just over half the value of the Harriman Fifteen Corporation's total holdings.
The New York City Directory of Directors volumes for the 1930s (available at the Library of Congress) show Prescott Sheldon Bush and W. Averell Harriman as the directors of Harriman Fifteen Corp.
`` Appointments, '' (three typed pages) marked `` Noted May 18 1931 W.A.H., '' (among the papers from Prescott Bush's New York Office of Brown Brothers Harriman, Harriman papers, Library of Congress), lists a meeting between Averell Harriman and Friedrich Flick in Berlin at 4:00 P.M., Wednesday April 22, 1931. This was followed immediately by a meeting with Wilhelm Cuno, chief executive of the Hamburg-Amerika Line.
The `` Report To the Stockholders of the Harriman Fifteen Corporation, '' Oct. 19, 1933 (in the Harriman papers, Library of Congress) names G.H. Walker as president of the corporation. It shows the Harriman Fifteen Corporation's address as 1 Wall Street--the location of G.H. Walker and Co.
17. Nazi Conspiracy and Aggression--Supplement B, op. cit., p. 1686.
18. Jim Flaherty (a BBH manager, Prescott Bush's employee), March 19, 1934 to W.A. Harriman.
`` Dear Averell:
In Roland's absence Pres[cott] thought it advisable for me to let you know that we received the following cable from [our European representative] Rossi dated March 17th [relating to conflict with the Polish government]....''
19. Harriman Fifteen Corporation notice to stockholders Jan. 7, 1935, under the name of George Walker, President.
20. Order No. 370: Silesian-American Corp. Executed Nov. 17, 1942. Signed by Leo T. Crowley, Alien Property Custodian. F.R. Doc. 42-14183; Filed Dec. 31, 1942, 11:28 A.M.; 8 Fed. Reg. 33 (Jan. 1, 1943).
The order confiscated the Nazis' holdings of 98,000 shares of common and 50,000 shares of preferred stock in Silesian-American.
The Nazi parent company in Breslau, Germany wrote directly to Averell Harriman at 59 Wall St. on Aug. 5, 1940, with `` an invitation to take part in the regular meeting of the members of the Bergwerksgesellsc[h]aft Georg von Giesche's Erben.... '' WAH papers.
21. Sept. 25, 1942, Memorandum To the Executive Committee of the Office of Alien Property Custodian, stamped CONFIDENTIAL, from the Division of Investigation and Research, Homer Jones, Chief. Now declassified in United States National Archives, Suitland, Maryland annex. See Record Group 131, Alien Property Custodian, investigative reports, in file box relating to Vesting Order No. 370.
22. George Walker was a director of American Ship and Commerce from its organization through 1928. Consult New York City Directory of Directors.
`` Harriman Fifteen Corporation Securities Position February 28, 1931, '' op. cit. The report lists 46,861 shares in the American Ship & Commerce Corp.
See `` Message from Mr. Bullfin, '' Aug. 30, 1934 (Harriman Fifteen section, Harriman papers, Library of Congress) for the joint supervision of Bush and Walker, respectively director and president of the corporation.
23. Cuno was later exposed by Walter Funk, Third Reich Press Chief and Under Secretary of Propaganda, in Funk's postwar jail cell at Nuremberg; but Cuno had died just as Hitler was taking power. William L. Shirer, The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1960), p. 144. Nazi Conspiracy and Aggression--Supplement B, op. cit., p. 1688.
24. See `` Elimination of German Resources for War, '' op. cit., pp. 881-82 on Voegler.
See Annual Report of the (Hamburg-Amerikanische-Packetfahrt-Aktien-Gesellschaft (Hapag or Hamburg-Amerika Line), March 1931, for the board of directors. A copy is in the New York Public Library Annex at 11th Avenue, Manhattan.
25. Nazi Conspiracy and Aggression--Supplement B, op. cit., pp. 1178, 1453-54, 1597, 1599.
See `` Elimination of German Resources for War, '' op. cit., pp. 870-72 on Schroeder; p. 730 on Groeninger.
26. Annual Report of Hamburg-Amerika, op. cit.
Baron Rudolph Schroeder, Sr. to Averell Harriman, Nov. 14, 1932. K[night] W[ooley] handwritten note and draft reply letter, Dec. 9, 1932.
In his letter, Baron Rudolph refers to the family's American affiliate, J. Henry Schroder [name anglicized], of which Allen Dulles was a director, and his brother John Foster Dulles was the principal attorney.
Baron Bruno Schroder of the British branch was adviser to Bank of England Governor Montagu Norman, and Baron Bruno's partner Frank Cyril Tiarks was Norman's co-director of the Bank of England throughout Norman's career. Kurt von Schroeder was Hjalmar Schacht's delegate to the Bank for International Settlements in Geneva, where many of the financial arrangements for the Nazi regime were made by Montagu Norman, Schacht and the Schroeders for several years of the Hitler regime right up to the outbreak of World War II.
27. Confidential memorandum from U.S. embassy, Berlin, op. cit.
28. U.S. Senate `` Nye Committee '' hearings, Sept. 14, 1934, pp. 1197-98, extracts from letters of Col. William N. Taylor, dated June 27, 1932 and Jan. 9, 1933.
29. American Ship and Commerce Corporation to Dr. Max Warburg, March 7, 1933.
Max Warburg had brokered the sale of Hamburg-Amerika to Harriman and Walker in 1920. Max's brothers controlled the Kuhn Loeb investment banking house in New York, the firm which had staked old E.H. Harriman to his 1890s buyout of the giant Union Pacific Railroad.
Max Warburg had long worked with Lord Milner and others of the racialist British Round Table concerning joint projects in Africa and Eastern Europe. He was an advisor to Hjalmar Schacht for several decades and was a top executive of Hitler's Reichsbank. The reader may consult David Farrer, The Warburgs: The Story of A Family (New York: Stein and Day, 1975).
30. Max Warburg, at M.M. Warburg and Co., Hamburg, to Averill [sic] Harriman, c/o Messrs. Brown Brothers Harriman & Co., 59 Wall Street, New York, N.Y., March 27, 1933.
31. This correspondence, and the joint statement of the Jewish organizations, are reproduced in Moshe R. Gottlieb, American Anti-Nazi Resistance, 1933-41: An Historical Analysis (New York: Ktav Publishing House, 1982).
32. Investigation of Nazi Propaganda Activities and Investigation of Certain Other Propaganda Activities: Public Hearings before A Subcommittee of the Special Committee on Un-American Activities, United States House of Representatives, Seventy Third Congress, New York City, July 9-12, 1934--Hearings No. 73-NY-7 (Washington: U.S. Govt. Printing Office, 1934). See testimony of Capt. Frederick C. Mensing, John Schroeder, Paul von Lilienfeld-Toal, and summaries by Committee members.
See New York Times, July 16, 1933, p. 12, for organizing of Nazi Labor Front at North German Lloyd, leading to Hamburg-Amerika after merger.
33. American Ship and Commerce Corporation telegram to Rudolph Brinckmann at M.M. Warburg, June 12, 1936.
Rudolph Brinckmann to Averell Harriman at 59 Wall St., June 20, 1936, with enclosed note transmitting Helfferich's letter.
Reply to Dr. Rudolph Brinckmann c/o M.M. Warburg and Co, July 6, 1936, in the Harriman papers at the Library of Congress. The file copy of this letter carries no signature, but is presumably from Averell Harriman.
34. Office of Alien Property Custodian, Vesting Order No. 126. Signed by Leo T. Crowley, Alien Property Custodian, executed August 28, 1942. F.R. Doc. 42-8774; Filed September 4, 1942, 10:55 A.M.; 7 F.R. 7061 (No. 176, Sept. 5, 1942.) July 18, 1942, Memorandum To the Executive Committee of the Office of Alien Property Custodian, stamped CONFIDENTIAL, from the Division of Investigation and Research, Homer Jones, Chief. Now declassified in United States National Archives, Suitland, Maryland annex. See Record Group 131, Alien Property Custodian, investigative reports, in file box relating to Vesting Order No. 126.
35. New York Times, May 20, 1933. Leading up to this agreement is a telegram which somehow escaped the shredder and may be seen in the Harriman papers in the Library of Congress. It is addressed to Nazi official Hjalmar Schacht at the Mayflower Hotel, Washington, dated May 11, 1933: `` Much disappointed to have missed seeing you Tuesday afternoon.... I hope to see you either in Washington or New York before you sail.
with my regards W.A. Harriman ''
36. Dulles to Bush letter and draft reply in WAH papers.
37. New York Times, Jan. 19, 1938.


George Bush: The Unauthorized Biography --- Bush Property Seized -- Trading with the Enemy by Webster G. Tarpley and Anton Chaitkin

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http://www.tarpley.net/bush2.htm
 


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 Bates, Samuel Henshaw 1833
Beach, John Campell 1833
Bishop, Noah 1833
Crump, John 1833
Davis, Benjamin Franklin 1833
Hart, Rufus Erastus 1833
Lewis, Ashel Hooker 1833
Marshall, Samuel Davies 1833
Mather, Frederick Ellsworth 1833
Miller Phineas Timothy 1833
Robertson Robert 1833
Russell, William Huntington 1833
Taft, Alphonso (S&B 1833)
Wood George Ingersoll 1833 Beaumont, Geo Anson Oliver 1834
Burr William Shedden 1834 Coffing Churchill 1834
Emerson Alfred 1834
Foster Eleazar Kingsbury 1834
Gordon Alexander Blucher 1834
Hall Daniel Emerson 1834
Houston John Wallace 1834
Kendall John Newton 1834
Kingsley, Henry Coit 1834
Lea, James Neilsen 1834
Southmayd Samuel Gray 1834
Spencer George Gilman 1834
Tweedy John Hubbard 1834
Washington William Henry 1834
Anderson, Edwin Alexander 1835
Davis, John 1835
Howard Oran Reed 1835
Johnston Frank 1835
MacLellan William 1835
Mills Ethelbert Smith 1835
Rafferty John Chandler 1835
Seeley John Edward 1835
Seymour John Forman 1835 1
Shelly Hugh White 1835
Strong Caleb 1835
Stubbs Alfred 1835
Sturges Thomas Benedict 1835 Thacher, Thomas Anthony 1835
Walsh Hugh 1835
Darling, Thomas 1836
Deming Henry Champion 1836
Dent Henry Hatch 1836
Harris Henry Reeder 1836
Hurd John Odman 1836
Martin George Lockwood 1836
Marvin Joseph Howard 1836
Pierson William Seward 1836
Preston Henry Kirk 1836
Rowland Wm Sherman 1836
Sherman Frederick Roger 1836
Swift John Morton 1836
Tyler George Palmer 1836
Wray James McAlpin 1836
Carter Edwin Osgood 1837
Coit William 1837
Day Thomas Mills 1837
Evarts, William Maxwell 1837
Hatch Walter Tilden 1837
Hyatt Robert Underwood 1837
Law William Fabian 1837
Lyman, Chester Smith 1837
Robeson Abel Bellows 1837
Scarborough Wm Smith 1837
Silliman, Jr., Prof. Benjamin 1837
Waite, U.S. Chief Justice Morris Remmick 1837
Williams Henry 1837
Yerkes Stephen 1837 1837
Bartlett, John Knowlton 1838
Cooper William Frierson 1838
Dodd Albert 1838
Fleming William Stuart 1838
Jones Seaborn Augustus 1838
Key Thomas Marshall 1838
Law William Lyon 1838
Lynde Charles James 1838
Ribeiro Carlos Fernando 1838
Rich Eugene Lamb 1838
Spalding Ebenezer 1838
Talcott Thomas Grosvenor 1838
Thompson, Reverend Joseph Parrish 1838
Varnum Joseph Bradley 1838
Williams Thomas Scott 1838
Beach, John Sheldon 1839
Biddle, Thomas Bradish 1839
Chandler William Henry 1839
Eldridge Charles St. John 1839
Faulkner Endress 1839
Hubbard Richard Dudley  1839
Jackson, Henry Rootes 1839
Norris William Herbert 1839
Putnam James Osborne 1839
Stille, Charles Janeway 1839
Trotter Silas Flournoy 1839
Washington George 1839
Watson John Marsh 1839
Williams William Perkins  1839
Wolcott Elizer 1839
Beirne, Christopher James 1840
Benedict, Theodore Hudson 1840
Burnham Curtis Field 1840
Chauvenet, William 1840
Fisk Stuart Wilkins 1840
Hopping, James Mason {Hoppin} 1840
Hoyl Joseph Gibson 1840
Hudson Ward Woodridge 1840
Jesup James Riley 1840
March Daniel 1840
McCall Henry 1840
Perkins William 1840
Perkins, Jr., John 1840
Richards George 1840
Tiffany William Henry 1840
Barry, Wm Taylor Sullivan 1841
DeSa Pompeo Ascenco 1841
Emerson, Joseph 1841
Eustis William Tappan 1841
Field David Irvine 1841
Gillette Augustus Canfield 1841
Helfenstein Charles Philip 1841
Leaf Edmund 1841
Learned William Law 1841
Mitchell, Donald Grant 1841
Raymond Henry Hunter 1841
Sturges Hezekiah 1841
Willis Richard Stobbs 1841
Woolfolk William Grey 1841
Yarnall Thomas C. 1841
Benton, Joseph Augustine 1842
Brown Joseph Venen 1842
Buttles, Albert Barnes 1842
Edwards Newton 1842
Gready William Postell 1842
Halsey Jacob 1842
Hart Roswell 1843
Henen William Davison 1842 Huggins William Sidney 1842
Lewis Henry 1842
MacWhorter Alexander 1842
Matthews Albert 1842
Miller Francis William 1842
Perkins Nathaniel Shaw 1842
Peters John Andrew 1842
Pratt Julius Howard 1842
Baratte, Julius Adolphus 1843
Chambers William Lyon 1843
Eames Benjamin Tucker 1843
Gachel Charles Nicholas 1843
Grammar Christopher 1843
Granger Gideon 1843
Havens Daniel William 1843 Lambert Alfred 1843
Lane William Griswold 1843
Lent John Abram 1843
Moody Thomas Hudson 1843
Robb John Hunter 1843
Robinson Lucius Franklin 1843
Stevens, Henry 1843
Bell, Richard Dobbs Spaight 1844
Breed, Edward Andrews 1844
Elliot William Horace 1844
Felder John Henry 1844
Ferry, Orris Sanford 1844
Few, Smith W. 1844
Fisk Samuel Augustus 1844
Foote Thaddeus 1844
Hoysradt Albert 1877 1844
Lanier Alexander Chalmers 1844
Lovell Joseph 1844
Robb James Madison 1844
Walker Joseph Burbeen 1844
Washburn William Barrett 1844
Wetherell John Walcott 1844 Wilson A. 1844 1844
Brickell, James Noaille 1845
Conner Lemuel Parker 1845
Conner William Gustine 1845
Cushman, Isaac LaFayette
Esty Constantine Canaris 1845
Gould James Gardner 1845
Harding John Wheeler 1845
Hill George Canning 1845
Hyde Alvan Pinney 1845
Kennedy Thomas 1845
Metcalfe Orrick 1845
Nickerson Sereno Dwight 1845
Rankin Robert 1845
Taylor, Richard(Dick) 1845
Wales Leonard Eugene 1845 1845
Backus, Joseph Willes 1846
Brisbrin, John Ball 1846
Eakin William Spencer 1846 1846
Harrison, Henry B. 1846
Hawley David 1846
Linton Stephen Duncan 1846
Mulford David Humphrey 1846
Nelson Rensselaer Russell 1846
Nevins William Bessell 1846
Phinney Elihu 1846
Savage Josiah 1846
Stiles Joseph 1846
Trask Charles Hooper 1846
Allison, Samuel Perkins 1847
Baldwin, Roger Sherman 1847
Bayne, Thomas Levingston 1847
Coon John 1847
Fitch James 1847
Haight Ducald Cameron 1847
Hayden William Hallock 1847
McLallen P. Fredinand 1847
Mills Alfred 1847
Moore William Eves 1847
Munn John 1847
Olmstead John Hull 1847
Sanford Charles Frederick 1847
Smith John Donnell 1847
Wilson John 1847
Abbe, Frederick Randolph 1848
Aitchison, William 1848
Blake, Henry Taylor 1848
Colton, Henry Martin 1848
Condit Charles 1848
Emerson, Samuel 1848
Foster, Dwight 1848
Hitchcock Henry 1848
Kinne, William 1848
Mesick Richard Smith 1848
Pinckard Thomas Cicero 1848
Strikler Samuel Alexander 1848
White George 1848
Wilcox Giles Buckingham 1848
Young Benham Daniel 1848
Brandegee, Augustus 1849
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Campbell James 1849
Clarke, William Barker
Dwight, Timothy 1849
Finch Francis Miles 1849
Hough Edward Clement 1849
Hurlbut Joseph 1849
Kirby Jacob Brown 1849
Metcalfe Henry Laurens 1849
Miles James Browning 1849
Morris Edward Dafydd 1849
Richardson Walker 1849
Rockwell John 1849
Bentley, Edward Warren 1850
Bliss, Robert 1850
Bliss, William Root 1850
Camp Clinton 1850
Chase, Henry 1850
Colton Willis Strong 1850
Condit Albert Pierson 1850
Converse George Sherman 1850
Dechert Henry Martyn 1850
Foote Joseph Forward 1850
Ludden William 1850
Manross Newton Spaulding 1850
Roberts Ellis Henry 1850
Storrs Cordial 1850
Woodford Oswald Langdon 1850
Alexander, William Felix 1851
Beman, Henry DeWitt 1851
Brinsmade, Horatio Walsh 1851
Crampton Rufus Cowles 1851 Dana, William Buck 1851
Evans, Evan Wilhelm 1851
Haldeman Richard Jacobs 1851
Hebard Albert 1851
Little Robbins 1851
Manice William DeForest 1851
Slade John Milton 1851 1851
Vose James Gardiner 1851
Wells Henry Dorrance 1851
White, Henry Dyer 1851
Whitney, Emerson Cogswell 1851
Bigelow, Albert 1852
Blakeslee, Henry Clay 1852
Bliss, Charles Miller 1852
Cooper, Jacob (S&B 1852) 1852
Crapo William Wallace 1852
Gilman, Daniel Coit 1852
Helmer Charles Downs 1852
Houghton Edward 1852
Marmaduke Vincent 1852
McCormick Henry 1852
Ross William Baldwin 1852
Safford George Blagden 1852
Sill George Griswold 1852
Stanley William 1852
Babcock, Henry Harper 1853
Baldwin, George William 1853
Capron, Samuel Mills 1853
Coit Joshua 1853
Davies, Thomas Frederick 1853
Gleason William Henry 1853
Growel Alfred 1853
Heard Albert Farley 1853
Jack Thomas Mckinney 1853
Johnson George Asbury 1853 Kent, Albert Emmett 1853
White, Andrew Dickinson 1853
Whiton James Morris 1853
Willard Andrew Jackson 1853
Blackman, Samuel Curtis 1854
Cutler, Carroll 1854
Denny Thomas 1854
Fenn William Henry 1854
Hooker, John Worthington 1854
Lambert Edward Wilberforce 1854
Lombard James Kittredge 1854
Lord, George de Forest 1854
Morris Luzon 1854
Potwin. Lemuel Stoughton 1854
Twombly Alexander Stevenson 1854
Wedsworth James Jeremiah 1854
White, Charles Atwood 1854
Whitney, Edward Payton 1854
Alexander, William DeWitt 1855
Barnes, Wm Henry Lienow 1855
Bumstead Nathaniel Willis 1855
Child Linus Mason 1855
Cobb, Henry Nitchie 1855
Granger John Albert 1855
Johnson, Charles Fredrick 1855
Killredge George Alvar 1855
Lampson George 1855
Mulford, Elisha 1855
Spring, Andrew Jackson 1855
Tyler, Charles Mellen 1855
Wheeler William 1855
Woodward Stanley 1855
Yardley Henry Albert 1855
Arnot, Matthias Hollenback 1856
Barker, George Payson 1856
Brown John Mason 1856
Campbell, William Harvey Wilson 1856
Condit Stephen 1856
Depew, Senator Chauncy M. 1856
Dickinson Arthur 1856
Eakin Emmet Alexander 1856
Fischer Louis Christopher 1856
Magruder Benjamin Drake
Nettleton Edward Payson 1856
Packard, Lewis Richard 1856
Paine Levi Leonard 1856
Robinson George Chester 1856
Whitney, James Lyman 1856
Blackman, Charles Seymour 1857
Blake, Eli Whitney 1857
Buckland Joseph Payson 1857
Butler, Francis Eugene 1857
Croxton John Thomas 1857
Day John Calvin 1857
Edwards Alfred Lewis 1857 Holmes John Milton 1857
Jackson Joseph Cooke 1857
Pratt George 1857
Seymour S.O. 1857
Wells Nathan Dana 1857
Blake, Edward Foster 1858
Eichelberger Martin Smyser 1858
Grant Edward Dromgoole 1858
Haskell Robert Chandler 1858
Heermance Edgar Laing 1858
Hollister, Arthur Nelson 1858
Kimball, John Edwin 1858
Lee Samuel Henry 1858
Maclellan, George Boardman 1858
Perkins Thomas Albert 1858
Porter Edward Clarke 1858 1
Scott Eben Greenough 1858
Stevens Frederic William 1858
Van Name Addison 1858
Woodward William Herrick 1858
Bristol, Louis Henry 1859
Brodhead, Henry 1859
Carpenter Robert John 1859
Clay Green 1859
Dunham George Elliott 1859
Hall William Kittredge 1859
Hannahs Diodate Cushman 1859
Harrison Burton Norvel 1859
Robertson Charles Franklin 1859
Schuyler, Eugene 1859
Smith Eugene 1859
Stiles William Augustus 1859 Taylor Alfred Judd 1859
White Roger Sherman 1859
Wilcoz Asher Henry 1859
Beckley, John Werle 1860
Boies, Charles Alred 1860
Boltwood, Edward 1860
Daniels, Joseph L. (S&B 1860)
Davis, Lowndes Henry 1860
Davis, Robert Stewart 1860
Fowler William 1860
Furbish Edward Brown 1860
Hebard, Daniel 1860
Johnston William Curtis 1860
Jones Luther Maynard 1860
Owen Charles Hunter 1860
Phelps, William Walter 1860
Seeley John Frank 1860
Smith William Thayer 1860
Baldwin, Simeon Eren 1861
Brown, Hubert Sanford 1861
Chamberlain Robert Linton 1861
Dexter, Franklin Bowditch 1861
Fuller William Henry 1861
Higgins Anthony 1861 1861
Kernochan Francis Edward 1861
Mitchell John Hanson 1861
Newel Stanford 1861
Park William Edwards 1861
Peck, Tracy 1861
Root Alexander Porter 1861
Sill, Edward Rowland 1861
Williams Ralph Omsted 1861
Adams, Frederick Baldwin 1862
Chamberlain Daniel Henry 1862
Coe, Edward Benton 1862
Day Melville Cox  1862
Eaton Sherburne Blake 1862
Kitchel Cornelius Ladd 1862
Lampson William 1862
MacVeagh, Franklin (S&B 1862) Ripley George Coit 1862
Seely, William Wallace 1862
Taylor John Phelps 1862
Ward John Abbott 1862
Weeks Robert Kelley 1862
Allen, Walter 1863
Arms, Charles Jesup 1863
Bingham, Egert Byron 1863
Bull Cornelius Wade 1863
Butler, John Haskell
Chamberlain Leander Trowbridge 1863
Dimock Henry Farnam 1863
Fowler Horace Webster 1863 Kernochan Joseph Frederic 1863
Perry, David Brainard 1863
Sheffield George St. John 1863
Southworth, George Champlin 1863
Sumner, William Graham 1863
Wesson Charles Holland 1863 Whitney, William Collins 1863
Boltwood, Thomas Kast 1864
Borden, Matthew Chaloner Durfee 1864
Boyden, Henry Paine 1864
Clark Albert Barnes 1864 1864
Hewitt Thomas Browning 1864
Mclean Charles Fraser 1864
Merriam George Spring 1864
Miller Allanson Douglas 1864
Owen Henry Elijah 1864 1864
Palmer William Henry 1864
Pratt William Hall Brace 1864
Pugsley Isaac P. 1864 1864
White Oliver Sherman 1864
Woodruff Francis Eben 1864
Bent, Joseph Appleton 1865
Brooks, John Edward 1865
Brown, Henry Armitt 1865
Bulkey Tuzar 1865 1865
Bushnell, William Benedick 1865
Caskey Taliaferro Franklin 1865
Charnley, Charles Meigs 1865
Ford George Tod 1865 1865
Merrill Payson 1865 1865
Riggs Benjamin Clapp 1865
Smith Charles Edgar 1865 1865
Stimson Henry Albert 1865 1865
Stone William 1865 1865
Warren Henry Waterman 1865
Adams, Charles Hemmenway 1866
Brand, James 1866
Coffin Edmund 1866 1866
Cole Hamilton 1866 1866
Farnam, William Whitman 1866
Foote Harry Ward 1866 1866
Hall John Manning 1866 1866
Hincks Edward Young 1866 1866
Holt George Chandler 1866 1866
Judson Frederick Newton 1866
Lampman Lewis 1866 1866
Sloane Henry Thompson 1866
Southgate Charles McClellan 1866 1866
Wade Levi Clifford 1866 1866
White George Edward 1866 1866
Bissell, Arthur Douglas 1867
Dexter Morton 1867 1867
DuBois John Jay 1867 1867
Dunning Rev. Albert Elijah 1867
Harding Wilder Bennett 1867 1867
Hartshorn Joseph William 1867
Hedge Thomas 1867 1867
Lamb Albert Eugene 1867 1867
Libbey Frank 1867 1867
Seymour Horatio 1867 1867
Spencer James M. 1867 1867
Taft Peter Rawson 1867 1867
Wetmore George Peabody 1867
Woodward Richard William 1867
Berry, Coburn Dewees 1868
Brewster, Chauncey Bunce 1868
Coffin James 1868 1868
Colt LeBaron Bradford 1868 1868
Dixon William Palmer 1868 1868
Farnam Charles Henry 1868 1868
McKinney William Allison 1868
Sloane Thomas Chalmers 1868
Thacher James Kingsley 1868
Tinker Anson Phelps 1868 1868
Tweedy Samuel 1868 1868
Tytus Edward Jefferson 1868 1868
Wood William C. 1868 1868
Wright Henry Park 1868 1868
Bannard, Henry Clay 1869
Beers, Henry Augustin 1869
Bissell, Wilson Shannon 1869
Brown, Alexander Lardner 1869
Eno John Chester 1869 1869
Foster John Pierrepont 1869 1869
Freeman Henry Varnum 1869
Heaton Edward 1869 1869
Hooker Thomas 1869 1869
Isham John Beach 1869 1869
Lear Henry 1869 1869
Perrin, Bernadotte 1869
Raymond Henry Warren 1869
Shirley, Arthur 1869
Andrews, Jr., John Wallingford
Gulliver William Curtis 1870 1870
Johnston Ross 1870 1870
Learned, Dwight Whitney 1870
Mason Henry Burratt 1870 1870
McClure James Gore King 1870 1870
McCutchen Samuel St. John 1870
Miller George Douglas 1870 1870
Perry John Hoyt 1870 1870
Selden Edward Griffin 1870 1870
Shattuck John Waldon 1870 1870
Stearns Edwin Russell 1870 1870
Strong Charles Hall 1870 1870
Tilney Thomas Joseph 1870 1870
Welch, William Henry 1870
Clark Charles Hopkins 1871 1871
Collin Frederick 1871 1871
Elliot Henry Rutherford 1871 1871
Hines, Charles Daniel {Hine} 1871
Kinney Herbert Evelyn 1871 1871
Lea Robert Brinkley 1871 1871
Mansfield Howard 1871 1871
Mason Alfred Bishop 1871 1871
Mead Frederick 1871 1871
Perry Wilbert Warren 1871 1871
Sperry Watson Robertson 1871
Strong George Arthur 1871 1871
Sweet Edwin Forrest 1871 1871
Thacher Thomas 1871 1871
Townsend William Kneeland 1871
Coe Robert Elmer 1872 1872
Cushing, William Lee 1872
Deming Charles Clerc 1872 1872
Deming, Henry Champion 1872
Dennis Frederic Shepard 1872
Hincks, John Howard 1872
Hoppin Benjamin 1872 1872
Merriam Alexander Ross 1872
Moore Georg Foot 1872 1872
Owen, Edward Thomas 1872
Payson Henry Silas 1872 1872
Ramsdell Charles Benjamin 1872
Spalding George A. 1872 1872
Woolsey Theodore Salisbury 1872
Alexander, Eben 1873
Allen, Arthur Huntington 1873
Beebe, William 1873
Daniels, Rensselaer Wilkinson 1873 1873
Denslow Herbert McKenzie 1873
Elder Samuel James 1873 1873
Flagg Wilbur Wells 1873 1873
Grubb Charles Ross 1873 1873
Johnes Edward Rudolph 1873
Judson, Issac Nichols 1873
Lathe Herbert William 1873 1873
Ord Joseph Pacificus 1873 1873
Prentice Samuel Oscar 1873
Tarbell, Frank Bigelow 1873
Thomas Charles Henry 1873 1873
Aldis, Owen Franklin 1874
Barnes, Pearce 1874
Bushnell, Samuel Clarke 1874
Farnam, Henry Walcott 1874
Grover, Thomas Williams 1874
James Henry Ammon 1874 1874
Munroe George Edmund 1874
Parkin William 1874 1874
Robbins Edwards Denmore 1874 Stapler Henry Beidleman Bascom 1874 1874
Townsend James Mulford 1874
Walden Russell 1874 1874
Wickes Thomas P. 1874 1874
Wittherbee Frank Spencer 1874
Wood John Seymour 1874 1874
Avery, Charles Hammond 1875
Brooks, James Wilton 1875
Chester Carl Thurston 1875 1875
Clarke Thomas Slidell 1875 1875
Day Robert Webster 1875 1875
Gulliver Henry Strong 1875 1875
Hothhkiss William Henry 1875
Jones Dwight Arven 1875 1875
Jones Frank Hatch 1875 1875
Patton John 1875 1875
Seymour John Sammis 1875
Smith Edward Curtis 1875 1875
Southworth Edward Wells 1875
Tillinghast Charles 1875 1875
Allen, John DeWitt Hamilton 1876
Andrews, John Wolcott 1876
Bannard, Otto Tremont 1876
Blaine, Walker 1876
Bottum, Elisha Slocum 1876
Cook Robert Johnston 1876 1876
Dawes Chester Mitchell 1876 Fowler Charles Newell 1876 1876
Hadley, Arthur Twining 1876
Howe Elmer Parker 1876 1876
Hyde William Waldo 1876 1876
Marvin Joseph Howard 1876 1876
Russell Philip Gray 1876 1876
Smith Rufus Riggs 1876 1876
Worcester Edwin Dean 1876 1876
Barnum, William Milo 1877
Bigelow, Walter Irving 1877
Brooks, Walter 1877
Chapin Charles Frederick 1877
Collin William Welch 1877 1877
Cooke Eldridge Clinton 1877 1877
Eaton Samuel Lewis 1877 1877
Gould Anthony 1877 1877
Kimball Arthur Reed 1877 1877
Percy Frederick Bosworth 1877 Sears Joshua Montgomery 1877
Thacher John Seymour 1877 1877
Tuttle George Montgomery 1877 Winston Frederick Seymour 1877
Campbell Treat 1878 1878
Carter Charles Francis 1878 1878
Curtis George Louis 1878 1878
Edwards George Benjamin 1878
Foster Roger 1878 1878
James William Knowles 1878
Kelsey Clarence 1878 1878
Knoll George Tapscott 1878 1878
Pollock George Edward 1878
Seeley, Jr. Edward Howard 1878 Spencer Charles Langford 1878
Stone Charles Martin 1878 1878
Taft, William Howard 1878
Whitney, Edward Baldwin 1878
Bowers, Lloyd Wheaton 1879
Burpee Lucien Francis 1879 1879
Foster George Forris 1879 1879
Green Henry Sherwood 1879 1879
Hitchcock Henry 1879 1879
Hyde Frank Eldridge 1879 1879
James Walter Belknap 1879 1879
Livingston Herman 1879 1879
Perrin John 1879 1879
Platt Lewis Alfred 1879 1879
Rodman Robert Simpson 1879 Swinburne Louis Judson 1879 Thompson Oliver David 1879 1879
Tighe Ambrose 1879 1879
Woodruff Timothy Lester 1879
Allen, William Palmer 1880
Amundson, John Arnold 1880
Bentley, Edward Manross 1880
Camp Walter 1880 1880
Green Edmund Frank 1880 1880
Nichols, Alfred Bull 1880
Ordway Henry Choate 1880 1880
Parker Wilbur 1880 1880
Partridge Sidney Catlin 1880 1880
Peters William Allison 1880 1880
Scudder Doremus 1880 1880
Spencer Edward Curran 1880
Taft Henry Waters 1880 1880
Wittherbee W.C. 1880 1880
Aiken, Edwin Edgerton 1881
Barney, Danford Newton 1881
Bartlett, Philip Golden 1881
Burrel, Joseph Dunn 1881
Coleman John Caldwell 1881 1881
Evarts Sherman 1881 1881
Fuller Philo Carroll 1881 1881
Leighton James 1881 1881
Osborne Thomas Burr 1881 1881
Thompson Norman Frederick 1881 1881
Van deGraaff Adrian Sebastian 1881 1881
Vernon Frederick Richardson 1881 1881
Walden Howard Talbott 1881 1881
White Henry Charles 1881 1881
Badger, Walter Irving 1882
Brewster, Benjamin 1882
Campbell James Alexander 1882
Eno Wiliam Phelps 1882 1882
French Asa Palmer 1882 1882
Johnson Barclay 1882 1882
Knapp Howard Hoyt 1882 1882
Lyman Chester Wolcott 1882
McBride Wilber 1882 1882
Osborne Arthur Sherwood 1882
Platt Henry Barstow 1882 1882
Pollock William 1882 1882
Wells John Lewis 1882 1882
Whitney, Joseph Ernest 1882
Worcester Franklin Eldred 1882
Burpee Charles Winslow 1883
Folsom Charles Seward 1883
Foote Charles Seward 1883 1883
Frost Elihu Brintnal 1883 1883
Hillard Lord Butler 1883 1883
Hull Louis Kossuth 1883 1883
McLaughlin, Edward Tompkins
Moore, Eliakim Hastings 1883
Palmer Harry Herbert 1883 1883
Parrott Joseph Robinson 1883
Taft, Horace Dutton 1883
Woodward John Butler 1883 1883
Blodgett, George Reddington
Booth, Samuel Albert 1884
Booth, Wilbur Franklin 1884
Evarts Maxwell 1884 1884
Foster Reginald 1884 1884
Gruener, Gustav 1884
Jones, Frederick Scheetz 1884
Lambert Alexander 1884 1884
Lawrance Thomas Garner 1884
McMillan William Charles 1884
Painter Henry McMahon 1884 Tompkins Ray 1884 1884
Twombly Henry Bancroft 1884
Wilder Amos Parker 1884 1884
Arnot, John Hulett 1885
Baldwin, Henry DeForest 1885
Bertron, Samuel Reading 1885
Brandegee, Frank Bosworth 1885
Bridgman, John Cloyse 1885
Brooks, Henry Stanford 1885
Flanders Henry Richmond 1885
Hidden Edward 1885 1885
Hobbs Charles Buxton 1885 1885
Mallon Guy Ward 1885 1885
McHenry John 1885 1885
Robinson Lucius Franklin 1885
Terry Wyllys 1885 1885
Worcester Wilfred James 1885 Anthony, Benjamin Harris 1886
Bremmer, Samuel Kimball 1886
Cowles Alfred 1886 1886
Crapo Stanford Tappan 1886 1886
Day Thomas Mills 1886 1886
Deming Lawrence Clerc 1883
Knapp Wallace Percy 1886 1886
Lewis, Charlton Miner 1886
Peters Frank George 1886 1886
Phelps Edward Johnson 1886 1
Phelps Sheffield 1886 1886
Pierson Charles Wheeler 1886 Schwab, John Christopher. 1886
Shipman Arthur Leffingwell 1886
Stewart Philip Battel 1886 1886
Thacher Sherman Day 1883 1886
Winston Dudley 1886 1886
Bennetto, John 1887
Corwin Robert Nelson 1887 1887
Cowles William Hutchinson 1887
Coxe Alexander Brown 1887 1887
Douglass Willard Robinson 1887 Hare Clinton Larue 1887 1887
Haven George Griswold 1887
Kendall, Jr. William Burrage 1887
Kent, William 1887
Knight Samuel 1887 1887
Pomeroy. John Norton 1887
Rogers John 1887 1887
Sheppard Walter Bradley 1887
Smith Herbert Augustine 1889
Cooley Harlan Ward 1888 1888
Fisher, Irving 1888
Gill George Metcalf 1888 1888
Hurd Richard Melanemon 1888 Isbell Orland Sidney 1888 1888
McMillan James Howard 1888
Morison David Whipple 1888 1888
Roby Samuel Sidney 1888 1888
Seward William Henry 1888 1888
Solley Fred Palmer 1888 1888
Stagg, Amos Alonzo 1888
Stevenson Frederic Augustus 1888 1888
Stimson, Henry Lewis 1888
Waite Morrison R. 1888 1888
Walker Samuel Johnson 1888
Buchanan, Thomas Walter 1889
Corbin William Herbert 1889 1889
Donnelley Reuben H. 1889 1889
Donnelley Richard Robert 1889 1
Donnelley Thomas Elliott 1889
Fisher Samuel Herbert 1889 1889
Gill Charles Otis 1889 1889
Griggs, John Cornelius 1889
McQuaid William Adolph 1889
Pinchot, Gifford 1889
Robinson Henry Seymour 1889
Stokes Horace Sheldon 1889 1
Walker, Horace Flecher 1889
Wells Herbert Wetmore 1889
Woodruff George Washington 1889 1889
Bayard, Thomas Francis 1890
Corwith John White 1890 1890
Crosby John 1890 1890
Arthur Pomeroy 1890 1890
Farnam John Dorrance 1890 1890
Harrison Fairfax 1890 1890
Haslam Lewis Scofield 1890 1890
James Norman 1890 1890
Kellogg Charles Poole 1890 1890
Kneeland Y. 1890 1890
Morse, Sidney Nelson 1890
Sage, Henry Manning 1890
Simmons Wallace Erskine 1890
Stewart Percy Hamilton 1890
Tracy Evarts 1890 1890
Calhoun Governeur 1891 1891
Cox John Joughin 1891 1891
Doane John Wesley 1891 1891
Graves William Phillips 1891 1891
Isham Edward Swift 1891 1891
Kenerson Vertner 1891 1891
Morison Samuel Benjamin 1891
Poole William Frederick 1891
Simms William Erskine 1891
Thomson Samuel Clifton 1891
Tweedy Henry Hallam 1891 1891
Walcott Frederic Collin 1891 1891
Word Charles Francis 1891 1891
Bayne, Hugh Aiken 1892
Boltwood, Edward 1892
Cheney Howell 1892 1892
Cheney, Jr. Knight Dexter 1892
Crosby, Jr. Benjamin Lewis 1892
Day, Clive 1892
Graves, Henry Solon 1892
Husted James William 1892 1892
Ingersoll, James Wernham Dunsford 1892
Jay, Pierre 1892
Kitchel William Lloyd 1892 1892
McClung Lee 1892 1892
Morison Stanford Newel 1892
Price Frank Julian 1892 1892
Ryle Ernest 1892 1892
Begg, William Reynolds 1893
Cooke James Barclay 1893 1893
Dwight Winthrop Edwards 1893
Gallaudet, Edson Fessenden 1893
Hay Logan 1893 1893
Ives Sherwood Bissell 1893 1893
Jones Alfred Henry 1893 1893
Lambert Adrian VanSinderen 1893
Martin George Greene 1893 1893
Parker Wm White Wilson 1893 Parsons Francis 1893 1893
Robinson John Trunbull 1893 1893
Roby Joseph 1893 1893
Rogers Derby 1893 1893
Wallace Alexander Hamilton 1893
Case George Bowen 1894 1894
Cochran Thomas 1894 1894
Davie, Thomas Frederick 1894
Hall John Loomer 1894 1894
Hare Meredith 1894 1894
Holster Edwin Olaf 1894 1894
Howland John 1894 1894
James Robert Campbell 1894
McMillan Philip Hamilton 1894
Paine Ralph Delahaye 1894 1894
Stewart, Jr. Walter Eugene 1894
Stillman Leland Stanford 1894
Walcott William Stuart 1894 1894
Whitney, Harry Payne 1894
Beard, Anson McCook 1895
Buckner, Mortimer Norton 1895
Butterworth, Frank Seiler 1895
Cable, Benjamin Stickney 1895
Carter Walter Frederick 1895
Clark Alexander Ray 1895 1895
Cooke Walter Evans 1895 1895
Davis, Benjamin 1895
Denison Lindsay 1895 1895
Harrison Francis Burton 1895
Hinkey Frank Augustus 1895
McKee Lanier 1895 1895
Phelps Zira Bennett 1895 1895
Shepley Arthur 1895 1895
Sloane William 1895 1895
Beard, William Mossgrove 1896
Brown, Alexander 1896
Cheney Ward 1896 1896
Cross, William Redmond 1896
DeSibour Jules Henri 1896 1896
Griggs Maitland Fuller 1896 1896
McKee M. Dunn 1896 1896
Neale James Brown 1896 1896
Smith Winthrop Davenport 1896
Stokes, Anson Phelps 1896
Thorne Samuel Brinckeroff 1896
Treadway Ralph Bishop 1896
Trudeau, Jr. Edward Livingston 1896 1896
Weyerhaeuser, Frederick Edward
Bailey, Philip Horton 1897
Brooke, George Clymer 1897
Coffin, Rev. Henry Sloane 1897
Fincke Clarence Mann 1897 1897
Garrison Elisha Ely 1897 1897
Gerard Sumner 1897 1897
Gillette Curtenius 1897 1897
Kerr Albert Boardman 1897 1897
Kitchel Cornelius Porter 1897
Sage, Dean 1897
Smyth Nathan Ayer 1897 1897
Sumner Graham 1897 1897
Wheelwright Joseph Stober 1897
Williams Norman Alton 1897 1897
Cheney Clifford Dudley 1898 1898
Fearey Morton Lazell 1898 1898
Gallaudet, Herbert Draper 1898
Hale, Jr. Eugene 1898 1898
Hinsdale Frank Gilbert 1898 1898
Kernochan Frederic 1898 1898
Lord, Franklin Atkins 1898
Montgomery Grenville Dodge 1898
Parker Grenville 1898 1898
Rogers D. 1898 1898
Simmons Frank Hunter 1898 1898
Wadsworth, Jr. James Wolcott 1898 1898
Whitney, Payne 1898
Wickes Forsyth 1898 1898
Wright Henry Burt 1898 1898
Adams, Mason Tyler 1899
Ames, Sullivan Dobb 1899
Bowles, Henry Thornton 1899
Brooke, Frederick Hiester 1899
Brown Jamot 1899
Callahan Hugh Andrew 1899 1899
Day Dwight Huntington 1899 1899
Griswold, William Edward Schenck 1899
Maffitt Thomas Skinner 1899 1899
Magee James McDevitt 1899 Preston Ord 1899 1899
Sweet Carroll Fuller 1899 1899
Vanderbilt, Alfred Gwynne (S&B 1899) 1899
Welles, Jr. Charles Hopkins 1899
Whitehouse William Fitzhugh 1899 1899
Adams, Frederick Baldwin 1900
Allen, Frederick Winthrop 1900
Camp Stuart Brown 1900 1900
Cheney Frank Dexter 1900 1900
Coffin, William Sloane 1900
Cross John Walter 1900 1900
Douglas Malcolm 1900 1900
Greenway James Cowan 1900
Hopkins, John Morgan 1900
Leavatt Ashley 1900 1900
Lyon George Armstrong 1900
Paddock Brace Whitman 1900
Rockefeller, Percy Avery 1900
Sullivan Corlis Esmonde 1900
Taft Hulbert 1900 1900
Allen, Arthur Dwight 1901
Carlisle James Mandeville 1901
Cheney Philip 1901 1901
Cheney Thomas Langdon 1901
Christian Henry Hall 1901 1901
Coy Sherman Lockwood 1901
Edwards Richard Henry 1901
Eels John Shepard 1901 1901
Hixon Robert 1901 1901
Hoysradt Warren J. 1901 1901
Keppelman John Arthur 1901
Morris, Ray 1901
Richardson Allan Harvey 1901
Welch George Arnold 1901 1901
Wright Alfred Parks 1901 1901
Carpenter George Boone 1902
Cressler Alfred Miller 1902 1902
Cushing, Charles Cyprian Strong
Day William Edwards 1902 1902
Ferguson Alfred Ludlow 1902
Guernsey Raymond Gano 1902
Potter Roderick 1902 1902
Rumsley Bronson Case 1902
Sincerrbeaux Frank H. 1902 1902
Stone Harold 1902 1902
Swan, Joseph Rockwell (S&B 1902) 1902
Taylor Alan McLean 1902 1902
Throwbridge Mason 1902 1902
White Percy Gardiner 1902 1902
Chadwick George Brewster 1903
Clark Harold Terry 1903 1903
Corning Erastus 1903 1903
Dreisbach John Martin 1903 1903
Hamlin Chauncey Jerome 1903
Hewitt Brower 1903 1903
Holt Henry Chandler 1903 1903
Lamb Albert Richard 1903 1903
Moore Frank Wood 1903 1903
Sutphin Stuart Bruen 1903 1903
Thompson Donald 1903 1903
Wallace Henry Mitchell 1903 1903
Waring Antonio Johnston 1903
White, John Richards 1903
Wilhelmi Frederick William 1903
Adams, Charles Edward 1904
Adams, George Webster 1904
Cheney Russell 1904 1904
Crane, Winthrop Murray 1904
Cross Walter Snell 1904 1904
Dodge Francis Talmage 1904
Kittle John Caspar 1904 1904
Metcalf Harold Grant 1904 1904
Miller James Ely 1904 1904
Pierce, Frederick Erastus 1904
Reed Lansing Parmalee 1904
Soper Willard Burr 1904 1904
Thacher Thomas 1904 1904
Thacher, Thomas Day (S&B 1904)
Wardwell Allan 1904 1904
Bradford, Arthur Howe 1905
Ellsworth John Stoughton 1905
Fish Stuyvesant 1905 1905
Hogan James Joseph 1905 1905
Hollister Buell 1905 1905
Hughes Berrien 1905 1905
Lathrop John Hiram 1905 1905
Richardson Gardner 1905 1905
Rogers Edmund Pendleton 1905
Sargent Murray 1905 1905
Sloane John 1905 1905
Tilney II Robert Fingland 1905 1
Turner Harold McLeod 1905 1905
Van Reypen, Jr. William Knickerbocker 1905 1905
Whitehouse Edwin Sheldon 1905
Bruce Donald 1906
Dousman Louis deVierville 1906
Ely Grosvenor 1906 1906
Flynn Alexander Rex 1906 1906
Hoyl Lydic 1906 1906
Magee John Gillespie 1906 1906
McClure, Jr. James Gore King 1906 1906
McGee Donald Ashbrook 1906
Moorhead William S. 1906 1906
O'Brien Frank 1906 1906
Perrin Lee James 1906 1906
Rockwell Foster Harry 1906 1906
Smith Bruce Donald 1906 1906
Turner Spencer 1906 1906
Wilson, Hugh Robert 1906
Barnes, William Deluce 1907
Blair, William McCormick 1907
Camp Arthur Goodwin 1907 1907
Daniels, Forest Leonard 1907
Danielson, Richard Ely 1907
Dixon Theodore Polehemus 1907
Dodge, Philip Lyndon 1907
Glaenzer Georges Brette 1907
Knox, Hugh Smith 1907
Morse Samuel Finley Brown 1907
Truesdale Calvin 1907 1907
Tuttle George Coolidge 1907 1907
Wells Harold Sherman 1907 1907
Woolsey Heathcote Morison 1907
Biglow, Lucius Horatio 1908
Dahl, George 1908
Davis, Walter Goodwin 1908
Dines Tyson 1908 1908
Foster Joseph Taylor 1908 1908
Griswold, Dwight Torrey 1908
Perrin Lester William 1908 1908
Seymour, Charles 1908
Stanley, Harold 1908
Thorton James Carlton 1908 1908
Townsend George Henry 1908
Watkins, Charles Law 1908
Williams James Willard 1908
Bundy, Harvey Hollister 1909
Burch Robert Boyd 1909 1909
Campbell Charles Soutter 1909 1
Clark Avery Artison 1909 1909
Dominick Gayer Gardner 1909
Howard James Merriam 1909
Howe Henry Almy 1909 1909
Jefferson Edward Francis 1909
Klots Allen Trafford 1909 1909
Lippitt Henry 1909 1909
Perrin John Bates 1909 1909
Rand Stuart Craig 1909 1909
Sanderson Benjamin 1909 1909
Seabury, Mortimer Ashmfad 1909
Stokes Harold Phelps 1909 1909
Bayne-Jones, Stanhope 1910
Coy Edward Harris 1910 1910
DeSilver Albert 1910 1910
Franchot Charles Pascal 1910
French, Robert Dudley 1910
Harrison George Leslie 1910 1910
Heron John 1910 1910
King Lyndon Marrs 1910 1910
Knight Augustus 1910 1910
Logan Walter Seth 1910 1910
Murphy Frederick James 1910
Philbin II Stephen 1910 1910
Taft, Robert Alphonso 1910
Wodelll R.A. 1910 1910
Badger, Paul Bradford 1911
Corey Alan Lyle 1911 1911
Daly, Frederick Joseph 1911
Davis, Clinton Wildes 1911
Day Sherwood Sunderland 1911
Dempsey John Bourne 1911 1911
Gammell Arthur Amory 1911 1911
Hyde Frederick Walton 1911 1911
Lombardi Cornelius Ennis 1911
McDonnell John Vincent 1911
Randolph Francis Fitz 1911 1911
Rowland John T. 1911 1911
Soule Leslie 1911 1911
Van Sinderen Henry Brinsmade 1911 1911
Wheeler Lawrence Raymond 1911
Boyd, Francis T 1912
Gardner Robert Abbe 1912 1912
Hartley Cavour 1912 1912
Howe Arthur 1912 1912
Hyde Donald R. 1912 1912
McClure Archibald 1912 1912
Merritt Henry Newton 1912 1912
Mullins Frederic Parsons 1912
Murphy Gerald Clery 1912 1912
Paul Charles Henry 1912 1912
Schwab Laurence vonPost 1913
Smith J. Gregory 1912 1912
Street Henry Abbott 1912 1912
Strout, Jr. Edwin Augustus 1912
Tener Alexander Campbell 1912
Twombly Edward Bancroft 1912
Allen, Calvin Durand 1913
Allen, Jr., Clarence Emir 1913
Baker, Richard Wheeler 1913
Colgate Henry Auchincloss 1913
Cortelyou, George Bruce 1913
Cowles, Alfred 1913
Harman, Archer 1913
Harriman, W. Averell 1913
Lovett August Sidney 1913 1913
McAndrew Alexander 1913 1913
Philbin Jesse Holladay 1913 1913
Sawyer, Jr. Homer Eugene 1913
Shelden Allan 1913 1913
Waters William Otis 1913 1913
Avery, Benjamin F. 1914
Cornish, Jr. Percy Gillette 1914
Daniels, Thomas Leonard 1914
Gile Clement Moses 1914 1914
Jones George Gill 1914 1914
Ketcham Henry Holman 1914
King Stoddard 1914 1914
Lippincott William Jackson 1914
Osborn Richard 1914 1914
Patterson George Washington
Rogers Herman Livingston 1914
Shepard Lorrin Andrews 1914
Warren, Jr. William Candee 1914
Buritt, Edwin A. {Burrt} 1915
Carter, Lyon 1915
Cornell Thomas Hilary 1915 1915
Davenport, Stephen Rintoul 1915
Denegre Thomas Bayne 1915
MacDonald II Ranald 1915 1915
MacLeish, Archibald ( 1915)
Middlebrook Louis Shelton 1915
Paris Irving 1915
Pumpelly Harold Armstrong 1915
 John Sylvester 1915 1915
Shedden William Martindale 1915 Slocum Edwin Lyon 1915 Stackpole Edward James 1915 Swift Walker Ely 1915
Darling, Arthur Burr (S&B 1916)
Gaillard, Jr. Samuel Gourdin 1916
Hadley Morris 1916
Johnstone Henry Webb 1916 Knapp Farwell 1916 1916
Oler Wesley M. 1916
Porter III Gilbert Edwin 1916 1916
Putnam Phelps 1916 1916
Roberts, Jr. Charles Holmes 1916 Shepard Donald Carrington 1916
Stewart Donald Ogden 1916 1916
Tener Kinley John 1916 1916
Tighe Laurence Gotzian 1916
von Holt Herman Vademar 1916
Walker, Charles Rumford 1916
Bellinger, Alfred Rammond 1917
Bush, Senator Prescott Sheldon 1917
Cooper, Henry Sage Fenimore (S&B 1917) 1917
Cunnigham, Oliver Bulg (S&B 1917) 1917
Duryee, Samuel Sloan (S&B 1917) 1917
Harriman, Edward Roland "Bunny" Noel (S&B 1917) 1917
Isham, Henry Peter (S&B 1917) James, Ellery Sedgewick (S&B 1917) 1917
LeGore, Harry William 1917
Mallon, Henry Neil 1917
Olsen, Albert William (S&B 1917)
Overton, John William (S&B 1917) 191
Shepard, Jr., Frank Parsons (S&B 1917) 1917
Simpson, Kenneth Farrand (S&B 1917) 1917
Woolley, Knight (S&B 1917) 1917
Ames, Allen Wallace 1918
Baldridge, Howard Malcolm 1918
Clay Cassius Marcellus 1918 191
Davison, F. Trubee 1918
Deans Robert Barr 1918 1918
Garfield Newell 1918 1918
Gates, Artemus L.{Artemis} 1918
Gould James 1918 1918
Lovett, Robert Abercrombie 1918
Snell Raymond Franklin 1918 Stewart Charles Jacob 1918 1918
Taft, Charles Phelps 1918
Vorys John Martin 1918 1918
Woolley John Eliot 1918 1918
Allen, Parker Breese 1919
Baldwin, Sherman 1919
Campbell Alan Barnette 1919 191
Carter Frederic Dewhurst 1919
Depew Canson Goodyear 1919
Gaillard Edward McCrady 1919 Hadley Hamilton 1919 1919
Haffner, Jr. Charles C. 1919 1919
Mallon John Howard 1919 1919
McCormick, Jr. Alexander Agnew 1919 1919
McKee Elmore Mcneill 1919 1919
Mead Winter 1919 1919
Otis James Sanford 1919 1919
Smith Traver 1919 1919
Walker George Nesmith 1919
Adams, Lewis G. 1920
Davison, Harry Pomeroy 1920
Heffelfinger, Frank Peavey 1920
Hincks John Morris 1920 1920
Hobson, Francis Thayer 1920
Ingalls David Sinton 1920 1920
Luce, Henry Robinson 1920
McHenry James 1920 1920
Patterson Morehead 1920 1920
Safford Theodore Lee 1920 1920
Sargent Joseph Weir 1920 1920
Schermerhorn Alfred Cosler 1920
Van Slyck DeForest 1920 1920
Winter Daniel R. 1920 1920
Acosta, John Sidney 1921
Bradley, Charles Harvey 1921
Brewster, Walter Rice 1921
Bundy, Frederick McGeorge 1921
Cowles William Sheffield 1921 1
Heminway Bartow Lewis 1921
Hord, Stephen Young 1921
Jenckes Marcien 1921 1921
Litt Willard David 1921 1921
Lunt Storer Boardman 1921 1921
Neville James E. 1921 1921
Parsons Langdon 1921 1921
Shevlin Edward Leonard 1921
Stewart John 1921 1921
Winter II Edwin Wheeler 1921
Aldrich, Malcolm Pratt 1922
Bush, James Smith 1922
Cheney, Ward 1922
Crosby Albert Hastings 1922 1922
Frost, Jr. Albert Carl 1922 1922
Hilles, Frederick Whitney 1922
Larner Robert Johnson 1922 1922
Lord, William Galey 1922
Page Robert Guthrie 1922 1922
Patterson Lee 1922 1922
Root Wells 1922 1922
Solley Robert Folger 1922 1922
Strong Henry Barnard 1922 1922
Thomas John Allen Miner 1922
Townsend, Jr. Frederic dePeyster 1922 1922
Woodward Stanley 1922 1922
Becket, G. Campbell 1923
Bulkey Jonathan Ogden 1923
Cooper John Sherman 1923 1923
Davenport, Russell Wheeler 1923
Day Huntington T. 1923 1923
Foster Maxwell E. 1923 1923
Hyde, Jr. Louis Kepler 1923 1923
Jordan Ralph Edward 1923 1923
Luckey Charles Pinckney 1923
Matthessen Francis Otto 1923
Norton, Jr. George Washington 1923 1923
Pelly Bernard Berenger 1923 1923
Wheeler Alfred Newton 1923 1923
Allen, Henry Elisha 1924
Appel, George Frederick Baer
Blair, Edwin Foster 1924
Diller John Cabot 1924 1924
Ewing Sherman 1924 1924
Haines Thomas Frederick David 1924 1924
Heffelfinger George Wright Peavy 1924 1924
Hilles, Jr. Charles Dewey 1924
Houghton Walter Edwards 1924
Lusk William Thompson 1924
Mallory William Neely 1924 1924
McCallum Revell 1924 1924
Melton, Jr. William Davis 1924
Spofford Charles Merville 1924
Thomson Clifton Samuel 1924
Johnston, William Preston 1925
Ardrey, Rushton Leigh 1925
Ashburn, Frank Davis 1925
Bench, Edward Cajetan 1925
Bissell, William Truesdale 1925
Blair, James Grant 1925
Gage Charles Stafford 1925 1925
Ives Gerard M. 1925 1925
Jones Walter Clyde 1925 1925
Lovejoy Winslow Meston 1925
Luman Richard John 1925 1925
Norton, William Bunnell 1925
Scott Henry Clarkson 1925 1925
Stevens Marvin A. 1925 1925
Stevenson Donald D. 1925 1925
Allen, Daniel 1926
Bronson, James Davis 1926
Coke, Jr. Henry Cornice 1926
Crosby Henry Stetson 1926 1926
Cutler Benjamin Crawford 1926
Davenport, John A 1926
Ferguson, Jr. Alfred L. 1926 1926
Hoysradt John McA. 1926 1926
Kingsbury, Howard Thayer 1926
Lord, Oswald Bates 1926
Michel Anthony Lee 1926 1926
Poore Charles Graydon 1926
Root, Reginald Dean 1926
Russell Frank Ford 1926 1926
Tighe Richard Lodge 1923 1926
Willard Charles Hastings 1926 1926Bunnell Phil W. 1927 1927
Look Allen M. 1927 1927
McIntosh Harris 1927 1927
Noble Lawrence Mason 1927
Patterson Thomas Cleveland 1927
Post Russell Lee 1927 1927
Richie Wallace Parks 1927 1927
Robbins William Wells 1927 1927
Robinson Frederick Flower 1927 Stokes, Jr. Anson Phelps 1927
Walker, Jr., George Herbert 1927
Wardwell Edward Rogers 1927
Warren John Davock 1927 1927
Watson III Charles 1927 1927
Bartholomew, Dana Treat 1928
Berger, Jr., George Bart 1928
Bingham, Charles Tiffany 1928
Fishwick Dwight Brown 1928 1928
Griggs, Jr. Herbert Stanton 1928
Haight George Winthrop 1928
Mallory, Jr. Barton Lee 1928 1928
Prentice John Rockefeller 1928 1
Robertson, Jr. Howard Copland 1928 1928
Ross Lancelot Patrick 1928 1928
Scott Stewart Patterson 1928
Stewart Peter Hellwege 1928
Walker Stoughton 1928 1928
Ashforth, Albert Blackhurst 1929
Costikyan, Granger Kent 1929
Crile, Jr. George 1929 1929
Decker, Jr. Edmund Lockwood 1929 1929
Dodge Washington 1929 1929
Eddy Maxon Hunter 1929 1929
Garvey John Joseph 1929 1929
Gillespie Kenrick S. 1929 1929
Grove Manasses Jacob 1929
Manville, Jr. Hiram Edward 1929
Merrill Henry Riddle 1929 1929
Paine, Jr. Ralph D. 1929 1929
Smith Lloyd Hilton 1929 1929
Wack Damon deBlois 1929 1929
Wells II George 1929 1929
Allison, Jr.Robert Seaman 1930
Ellis Harland Montgomery 1930
Ellis Raymond Walleser 1930
Erskine, Jr. Albert DeW. 1930 1
Garnsey Walter Wood 1930 1930
Greene Waldo Wittenmyer 1930
Gwin Samuel Lawrence 1930 1
Hall Robert A. 1930 1930
Janeway Charles Anderson 1930
Ladd, Jr. Louis Williams 1930
Longstreth George B. 1930 1930
Look Frank Byron 1930 1930
Musser John Miller 1930 1930
Palmer Arthur Edward 1930 1930
Prideaux Tom 1930 1930
Austen, David Edward 1931
Donnelley Gaylord 1931 1931
Heinz II (R-Pa.), Senator Henry John 1931
Lapham Lewis Abbot 1931 1931
Loeser Frederic William 1931 Lydgate William A. 1931 1931
Messimer, Jr. Robert L. 1931 Peitz William Learned 1931 1931
Rathborne Joseph Cornelius 1931 Stewart James Ross 1931 1931
Swoope Walter Moore 1931 1931
Tucker Luther B.D. 1931 1931
Vincent Francis T. 1931 1931
Walker John Mercer 1931 1931
Adams, Jr., F.B. 1932
Barres, Herster D. 1932
Bates, Emmert Warren 1932
Fitch, George Hopper 1932
Fulton, Robert Brank 1932
Gillespie Jr., S.Hazard 1932
Hodges, Jr. William VanDerveer 1932
Laundon, Jr. Mortimer Hamlin (S&B 1932) 1932
Lindenberg, John Townsend 1932
McCrary, Jr., John Reagan 1932
Mills, James Paul 1932
O'Neill, Jr., Eugene Gladstone 1932Ogden, Alfred 1932
Savage, Jr., Bouifelle 1932
Williams, Samuel Goode 1932
Caldwell, Jr., Samuel Smith 1933
Cooke, Francis Judd 1933
Davis, Richard Marden 1933
Fletcher, Alexander Charles 1933
Garnsey, William Smith 1933
Hall, Jr. Frederick Bagry 1933 Jones, Theodore S. (S&B 1933)
Levering, Walter B. (S&B 1933)
indley, Frances Vinton 1933
McGauley, John Michael 1933
Newton, Jr., James Quigg 1933
Parker, Robert Boyd 1933
Parsons, Henry McIlvaine 1933
Parsons, M. (S&B 1933) 1933
Stebbins, Hart Lyman 1933
Wilbur, John Smith 1933
Bradford, Amory Howe 1934
Cunningham, Hugh Terry 1934
Gordon, George Arthur (S&B 1934) 1934
Hallett, John Folsom 1934
Hambleton, Thomas Edward (S&B 1934) 1934
Harper, Jr. Harry Halsted 1934
Holmes, John Grier 1934
Jackson, John Herrick 1934
Kilcullen, Johm M. (S&B 1934)
Kimball, Walter S. (S&B 1934) Mills, Edward Ensign 1934
Morse, John Bolt 1934
Nichols, Edward 1934
Ranney, George Alfred 1934
Stetson, Jr., Eugene William (S&B 1934) 1934
Bowles, John Eliot 1935
Collier, Samuel (Sam) Carnes 1935
Curtin, Francis Clare 1935
Fuller, Stanley Evert 1935
Johnson, Joseph.(Joe) Hale (S&B 1935) 1935
Kilborne, William (Bill) Skinner 1935
Pillsbury, Jr., John Sargent 1935
Rodd III, Thomas (S&B 1935) Seymour, Jr., Charles (S&B 1935) 1935
Shepard, Jr. Roger Bulkley 1935
Spitzer, Jr., Lyman B. 1935
Stillman, George Schley 1935
Terry, H.P.Baldwin 1935
Tufts, Bowen (Sonny) Charleton (S&B 1935) 1935
Barr, Jr., Richard James 1936
Bingham (D-N.M.), Senator Jonathan Brewster 1936
Cooke, Robert Barbour 1936
Davis II, Horace Webber 1936
Dunwody James Bulloch 1836
Gill, B. (S&B 1936) 1936
Haas, Frederick Peter (S&B 1935)
Hall, Jesse Angell 1936
Hersey, John Richard 1936
Knapp, John Merrill 1936
Moore, Richard Anthony 1936
Pillsbury, Edmund Pennington
Rankin, B. Courtney 1936
Shepard, B. (S&B 1936) 1936
Train, Robert 1936
Walker, Louis 1936
Whitehead, Mather Kimbal 1936
Blake, Dexter B. 1937
Brooke, Jr., F.H. 1937
Burke, Jr. Charles Clinton 1937
Cross, Richard James 1937
Draper, Arthur Joy (S&B 1937)
Field, John Warner 1937
Kelley, L.M. (S&B 1937) 1937
McLemore, Jr. John Briggs 1937
Miles, Richard Curtis 1937
Orrick, Jr., William H. 1937
Robinson, John Trunbull 1937
Runnals, John Felch Bertram {Runnalls} 1937
Stewart, Justice Potter. 1937
Stone, Jr., Louis T. 1937
Turner, H.M. (S&B 1937) 1937
Davenport, Bradford Warwick 1938
Dempsey, Jr., James Howard 1938
Dilworth, Joseph Richardson 1938
Dunham, Jr., Lawrence Boardman (S&B 1938) 1938
Ecklund, John E. (S&B 1938)
Fox, Joseph Carrere (S&B 1938)
Frank, Clinton E. (S&B 1938)
Gordon Edward McGuire 1938
Hessberg II, Albert 1938
Lapham Raymond White 1928 1938
Schermerhorn, Amos Egmont 1938
Stevens, Jr., Joseph B. (S&B 1938) 1938
Thompson, John R. 1938 1938
Weed, George Haines 1938
Whitman, Jr., Francis Slingluff 1938
Wilbur, Richard Emery 1938
Belin, Gaspard d'Andelot 1939
Blanchard Jerred Gurley 1939
Bundy, William Putman 1939
Chittenden, George Hastings 1939
Clucas, Lowell Melcher, 1939
Dyess, Jr. Arthur Delma 1939
Gile, Clement D. (S&B 1939)
Hoston, Jr., Archibald Robinson 1939
Kellogg, W.W. (S&B 1939) 1939
Miller Andrew Otterson 1939 1939
Miller, Jr., Charles Lewis 1939
Mitchell, Harry H. 1939
Sheapard, Jr., Lloyd Montgomery 1939
Wilhelmi, Jr., Frederick William 1939
Williams, Burch 1939
Bundy, McGeorge 1940
Erickson, Thomas Franklin (S&B 940) 1940
Glover III, Charles C. (S&B 1940)
Grayson, James Gordon 1940
Holden, Reuben A. (S&B 1940)
Howe II, Harold (S&B 1940) 1940
Orrick, Andrew Downey 1940
Rodd, David B. (S&B 1940) 1940
Stack, Jr., Joseph William 1940
Stevens, Albert B. (S&B 1940)
Stillman, Peter Gordon Bradley
Stucky, William McDowell 1940
Swenson, Jr., Edward Francis
Thorne, Peter Brinckerhoff 1940
Watson, Jr., William Berkley 1940
Cross, Jr., W.R. (S&B 1941) 1941
Devor, Jr., Donald S. 1941
Ellis Jr., F.Henry (S&B 1941)
Hall, Edward Tuck 1941
Jackson, William E. 1941
Kiphuth, Delaney 1941
Madden, John Beckwith 1941
Pickett, Lawrence Kimball 1941
Price, Jr., Charles Baird 1941
Solbert, Peter O.A. 1941
Stevenson, Charles P. 1941
Thomas, Walton D. 1941
Tighe, Jr., Laurence Gotzian 1941
White, Warren Benton 1941
White, William Gardiner 1941
Zorthian, Barry 1941
Aycrigg II, William Anderson 1942
Bartholemy, Alan Edmund 1942
Bell, William Tompkins 1942
Chouteau, Rene Auguste 1942
Ford, William 1942
Grayson, Jr., Cary Travers 1942
Halsey, Jr., Ralph Wetmore 1942
Harrison, Fred Harold 1942
Jessup, J.B. (S&B 1942) 1942
Kemp, J.B. (S&B 1942) 1942
Kirchwey, George W. (S&B 1942)
Smith, Jr. , Howard Freeman 1942
Sprole, Frank Arnoit 1942
Walker, John S. 1942
Acheson, David Campton (Campion) 1943
Caulkins, Jr., George Peck 1943
Daniels, John H. 1943
Doolittle, Duncan Hunter (S&B 1943) 1943
Drain, Richard Dale (S&B 1943)
Healy, Jr. Harold Harris 1943
Hoagland, Donald Wright 1943
Klotts, Jr., Allen Trafford {Klots}
Liley, Jr. Frank Walder 1943
Mclean John Helm 1943 1943
Miller, Dudley Livingston 1943
Mosely, Spencer Dumaresq 1943
Stewart, Zeph 1943
Tabor, John Kaye 1943
Vogt, Tom D. 1943
Brown, Samuel Taylor Glover
Buckley James Lane 1944
Elebash, Shehand Daniel 1944
Ellis, Jr. Alexander 1944
Ferguson, James Lord 1944
Goodenough, John Bannister 1944
Grayson William Cabell 1944
Holden, John Morgan 1944
Hoopes, Townsend Walter 1944
Kelly II, W.C. (S&B 1944) 1944
Lindsay, David A. (S&B 1944)
Little, Stuart W. 1944
Walker, Jeffrey Pond 1944
Whitmore, Jr., James Allen 1944
Witter, Jr., Dean 1944
Allen, Jr., Archibald J.. 1945
Blake, Jr., Gilman Dorr 1945
Brown, Walter Henderson 1945
Carey, John 1945
Clark, William Judkins 1945
Connick, L, (S&B 1945) 1945
Cook III, George 1945
Dale, Jr., Edwin Lyon 1945
Davison, Endicott Peabody 1945
Early, Hobart Evans 1945
Elwell, Jr. Francis Bolton 1945
Harman, Jr., Archer 1945
Huribut, Jr., Gordon Buckland 1945
Lynch, R.Vincent 1945
McElroy, Benjamin Thomas 1945
McGaughey, Jr., Guy Ennis 1945
Moorhead, William S. (S&B 1945)
Seaman, Jr., Irving 1945
Spaulding, Josiah Augustus 1945
Sumner, William S. 1945
Vose, Elliot Evans 1945
Warren George U. 1945W 1945
Wilke Valleau 1945 1945
Alling, Jr. Charles Booth 1947
Andrews, Jr., Edward Williamson 1947
Boulos (Bouliaratis), William M. 1947
Bronson, David Bennet 1947
Chafee (R-R.I.), Senator John M. 1947
Finley, John George Gilpin 1947
Goedecke, William Skinner 1947
Leavenworth, Donald Loyal 1947
Moore, James I. 1947
O'Brien, Jr., Frank 1947
Palmer, Charles Edward 1947
Read, Richard Rollins 1947
Robinson, Jr., H.C. (S&B 1947) 1947
Tucker, Jr., Carl (S&B 1947) 1947
Whitehouse, Charles Sheldon 1947
Ashley, Thomas William Ludlow 1948
Biglow, Jr., Lucius Horatio 1948
Bush, President George Herbert Walker 1948
Caulkins, John Ervin 1948
Connelly, Jr., William James 1948
Grimes, David Charles 1948
Jenkins, Richard Elwood 1948
Mack, Richard Gesrtle 1948
Moseley, Thomas Wilder 1948
Pfau, Jr., G.H. (S&B 1948) 1948
Walker,Jr., Samuel Sloan 1948
Weaver, Howard Sayer 1948
Wilkie, Jr., Valleau 1948
Baribault, Richard Pfeifer 1949
Bassett II, Barton Bradley 1949
Coffin, Jr., Rev. William.S. 1949
Davison, Daniel Pomeroy 1949
Goodyear, Robert M. (S&B 1949) 1949
Hollister, Jr. J. B. (S&B 1949) 1949
Lavelli, Jr., A. (S&B 1949) 1949
Leiper, Joseph McCarrell 1949
Lippincott, David McCord 1949
Lord II, Charles Edwin 1949
Lord II, Charles Edwin 1949
Lufkin, Sr., Peter Wende 1949
Raymond, George T.P. 1949
Sherrill, Franklin Goldwaithe 1949
Van Dine, Vance 1949
Breen, John Gerald 1950
Buckley, Jr., William Frank 1950
Draper III, William 1950
Frank, Jr. Victor H. 1950 1950
Galbraith Evan Griffith 1950 1950
Guinzburg Thomas Henry 1950 1950
Henningsen, Jr. Victor William 1950 1950
Kemp Philip Sperry 1950 1950
Lambert Paul Christopher 1950 1950
Lovett Sidney 1950 1950
Luckey Charles Pinckney 1950 1950
MacLeish, William 1950
McLean III Robert 1950 1950
Pionzio, Dino John 1950
Shepard Donald Carrington 1950 1950
Anderson, Thomas Hill 1951
Eden John W. 1951 1951
Ellis Garrison McClintock Noel 1951 1951
Ellis, Jr. G. Corson 1951 1951
Love Ralph Frank 1951 1951
Lufkin Chauncey F. 1951 1951
Mathews Craig 1951 1951
Mayer Charles Theodore 1951 1951
McNamara Thomas Philip 1951 1951
Price,Jr., Raymond Kissam 1951
Reed Edward Snover 1951 1951
Russell Richard Warren 1951 1951
Ryan Joseph Mather 1951 1951
Shepard Charles R.S. 1951 1951
Aberg, Jr., Donlan Vincent 1952
Buckley, Fergus Reid 1952
Claude, Jr. Abram 1952 1952
Connick Andrew Jackson 1952 1952
Cruikshank, Jr. Paul Fessenden 1952 1952
Eisler Colin Tobias 1952 1952
Finney Graham Stanley 1952 1952
Haight, Jr. Charles S. 1952 1952
Hincks John Winslow 1952 1952
Kittredge Frank Dutton 1952 1952
Roberts, Jr. George Brooke 1952 1952
Senay Edward Charles 1952 1952
Spears Robert Samuel 1952 1952
Vorys Martin W. 1952 1952
Bulkey, Jonathan Duncan 1953
Bush, Jonathan James 1953
Donaldson William Henry 1953 1953
Durham II Edwin A. 1953 1953
Emerson Christy Payne 1953 1953
Lufkin Dan Wende 1953 1953
Marshall John Birnie 1953 1953
McLane James Price 1953 1953
Menton John Dennis 1953 1953
Mitinger Joseph Berry 1953 1953
Noble, Jr. Lawerence Mason 1953 1953
Novkov David A. 1953 1953
Walker III George Herbert 1953 1953
Weber John William 1953 1953
Woodsum, Jr. Harold Edward 1953 1953
Benninghoff, Harry Bryner 1954
Evans T. Boyd 1954 1954
Fortunato S. Joseph 1954 1954
Gifford Richard C. 1954 1954
Gisen, Jr. Arthur R. 1954 1954
Hiers Richard Hyde 1954 1954
Kilrea Walter C. 1954 1954
Meyer, Jr. Russell William 1954 1954
Morton, Jr. Thruston Ballard 1954 1954
Polich Richard Frank 1954 1954
Price Ross E. 1954 1954
Reponen Robert Gordon 1954 1954
Rowe, Jr. Thomas D. 1984 1954
Ryan III Allan A. 1954 1954
Schnaitter Spencer Jason 1954 1954
Slade Francis Henry 1954 1954
Thorton Edmund Braxton 1954 1954
Bryan, Jr., Lloyd Thomas 1955
DeForest Stephen Elliott 1955 1955
Fehr Gerald F. 1955 1955
Gow, Richard Haigh 1955
Green Charles Grady 1955 1955
Guidotti Hugh G. 1955 1955
Hansen Roger Allen 1955 1955
Hudson Franklin Donald 1955 1955
Mathias II Philip 1955 1955
McCullough David G. 1955 1955
Shugart Thorne Martin 1955 1955
Steadman Richard Cooke 1955 1955
Walker Ray Carter 1955 1955
Banks, Howard D. 1956
Boasberg III, James Emanuel 1956
Dempsey Andrew Squire 1956 1956
Durfee, Jr. C. Gibson 1956 1956
Esselstyn, Jr. Caldwell Blakesman 1956 1956
Gaines Milton J. 1956 1956
Ingalls, Jr. David Sinton 1956 1956
Jamieson, Jr. Thomas Crawford 1956 1956
Malloy Terrence R. 1956 1956
McGregor Jack F. 1956 1956
Menton James Paul 1956 1956
Orr Andrew Alexander 1956 1956
Speed James Breckinridge 1956 1956
Traphagen Peter A. 1956 1956
Ackerman, Stephen H. 1957
Bowman, Ralph David 1957
Carlsen Ray Allen 1957 1957
Clark, Jr. Russell Inslee 1957
Cushman Charles W. 1957 1957
Dunn George J. 1957 1957
Fritzche Peter B. 1957 1957
Loucks, Jr. Vernon R. 1957 1957
Loughran Anthony Hookey 1957 1957
Lumpkin Richard Anthony 1957 1957
Oberlin John P. 1957 1957
Palmer II L. Guy 1957 1957
Ritchie, Jr. Wallace Parks 1957 1957
Somerville John W. 1957 1957
Williams William Bruce 1957 1957
Allen, Charles E. 1958
Blue, Linden Stanley 1958
Cassel John A. 1958 1958
Cheney Ronald Lawton 1958 1958
Cushman, Jr. , Lt. Gen. Robert Edgar 1958 1958
Embersits John Frank 1958 1958
Howe Gary Woodson 1958 1958
Morey, Jr. Robert Willis 1958 1958
Pendexter John Fowler 1958 1958
Phelan Howard T. 1958 1958
Post, Jr. Russell Lee 1958 1958
Preston John Louis 1958 1958
Shackelford Robert Campbell 1958 1958
Wheeler Thomas Beardsley 1958 1958
Adams, Stephen 1959
Bodman, William Camp 1959
Connors, III James Joseph 1959
Cooke John Parick 1959 1959
Ercklentz Alexander Tonio 1959 1959
Esselstyn Erik Canfield 1959 1959
Hemphill James Tierney 1959 1959
Holbrook, Jr. John 1959 1959
Kingsley Charles C. 1959 1959
Lightfoot Richard Bissett 1959 1959
Lord, Winston 1959
Mayor Michael B. 1959 1959
Sheffield James Rockwell 1959 1959
Thorson Peter Andreas 1959 1959
Tyler Cheever 1959 1959
Ball, David George 1960
Beane, Jr., Frank Eastman 1960
Capron III, Paul 1960
Dominick David DeWitt 1960 1960
Ernst Frederick Vincent 1960 1960
Garnsey William Herrick 1960 1960
Giegengack, Jr. Robert F. 1960 196
0
Holbrook David Doubleday 1960 1960
Lindgren Richard Hugo 1960 1960
Lusk Peter A. 1960 1960
McCarthy Charles Edward 1960 1960
Meek John Burgess 1960 1960
Northrup Robert Smitter 1960 1960
Scott Eugene Lytton 1960 1960
Smith III Bruce Donald 1960 1960
Bissell, George Thomas 1961
Bockrath, Jr., Richard Charles 1961
Bowles, Jr., William Carter 1961
Clark Thomas W. 1961 1961
Cogswell John Marshall 1961
DeNeufville John Phillip 1961 1961
Hamlin Charles B. 1961 1961
Lindsay, Jr. Dale Alton 1961 1961
MacLean, Jr. Kenneth 1961 1961
Pyle Michael J. 1961 1961
Ross Thomas Bernard 1951 1961
Seeley George Wheeler 1961 1961
Shearer Sextus 1861 1961
Singleton II Thomas 1961 1961
Stewart James C. 1961 1961
Waddell Geoffrey Hamilton 1961 1961
Walsh, Jr. John Joseph 1961 1961
Back, Samuel H. 1962
Brandt, John Henry 1962
Brewster IV, James Henry 1962
Brooks, Tristam Anthony 1962
Burr II Charles Bentley 1962 1962
Childs, Henry Clay 1962
Chimenti Norman Victor 1962 1962
Hamilton William 1962 1962
Holland Henry Thompson 1962 1962
LeFevre Ronald Eaton 1962 1962
Ligon Thomas B. 1962 1962
Peck, Jr. Arthur John 1962 1962
Spitz Robert W. 1962 1962
Terry III Wyllys 1962 1962
Zucker Bernard Benjamin 1962 1962
Ahlbrandt, Jr., Roger S. 1963
Becket, Peter Logan 1963
Borne, Senator David Lyle 1963
Clay Jesse Loring 1963 1963
Frank III Charles Augustus 1963 1963
Gill Brendan 1963 1963
Gill Michael Gates 1963 1963
Gwin, Jr. Samuel Lawrence 1963 1963
Hewitt Henry H. 1963 1963
Marsh William Lee 1963 1963
Moser Richard Eugene 1963 1963
Nordhaus William D. 1963 1963
O'Connell Timothy James 1963 1963
Rose Jonathan Chapman 1963 1963
Rulon-Miller Patrick 1963 1963
Best, Geoffry Donald Charles 1964
Cirie John Arthur 1964
Clay Alexander Stephens 1964 1
Francis Samuel Hopkins 1964
Gillette, Jr. Howard Frank 1964
Lynch Dennis Patrick 1964 1964
McBride Jonathan Evans 1964
Prindle Thomas Harrison 1964
Pulaski, Jr. Charles Alexander 1964 1964
Van Loan Eugene 1964 1964
Wilbur, Jr. John Smith 1964 1964
Wolfe II Stephen 1964 1964
Ali, Mehdi Raza 1965
Benoit, Jr., Charles Edward 1965
Clark Gerald Holland 1965 1965
Clark Stephen Edward 1965 1965
Clay Timothy J. 1965 1965
Coombs Orde Musgrave 1965
Corey III Alan Lyle 1965 1965
Desjardins Peter Earl 1965 1965
Fetner Philip Jay 1965 1965
Lagercrantz Bengt M. 1965 1965
Pinney John Mercer 1965 1965
Pond Jeffrey Craig 1965 1965
Quarles III James Perrin 1965
Shattuck John H.F. 1965 1965
Zallinger Peter Franz 1965 1965
Bockstoce, John R. 1966
Brown, George Clifford 1966
Cross Alan W. 1966 1966
Dalby Michael Thomas 1966 1966
Howard James Ernest 1966 1966
Kerry (D-Mass.), Senator John Forbes 1966
Laidley Forrest David 1966 1966
Pershing Richard Warren 1966
Rumsey D
avid McIver 1966 1966
Singer Ronald Leonard 1966 1966
Smith Frederick W. 1966 1966
Stanberry, Jr. William Burks 1966
Thorne David Hoadley 1966 1966
Vargish Thomas 1966 1966
Afeoju, Bernard Ikecukwu 1967
Ashe, Victor Henderson 1967
Bradford, Timothy McFall 1967
Bush, Derek George 1967
Foster David John 1967 1967
Garnsey, Jr. Walter W. 1967 1967
Lilley Robert McGregor 1967 1967
Miller James Whipple 1967 1967
Mitchell, Jr. H. Coleman 1967
Neigher Geoffrey Mark 1967 1967
Preston James Marshall 1967
Richards Davi Alan 1967 1967
Sanon James M. 1967 1967
Smith Bradford Curie 1967 1967
Swil Roy Anthony 1967 1967
Thompson, Jr. Stepehn Eberly 1967 1967
Austin, Roy Lesley ?Leslie 1968
Birge, Robert Richards 1968
Brown, Christopher Walworth 1968
Bush, Governor George Walker 1968
Cohen, Kenneth Saul 1968
Cowdry, Rex William 1968
Etra, Donald. 1968
Gallico III, G.Gregory 1968
Guthrie III, Robert K. 1968
Kolar, Bruton Ward 1968
McCallum, Jr., Robert Davis 1968
Saleh, Muhammad Ahmed 1968
Schmidt, Thomas Carl 1968
Schollander, Donald Arthur 1968
Thorne, Brinkley Stimpson 1968
Arras, Jr., Robert E. 1969
Bouscaren, Michael Frederic 1969
Buck III, Charles Henry 1969
Cosgrove, Jr., Thomas Francis 1969
Demares II, Frank Edward 1969
Dowling, Brian J. 1969
Fuller Henry W. 1969 1969
Livingston II, Richard H.B. 1969
Madden, B. Patrick 1969
Miller, Wentworth Earl 1969
O'Leary, Jr., John Joseph 1969
Schwarzman, Stephen Allen.
Selander, Duane Arthur 1969
Thompson, Jr., William McIlwaine
Woodlock, Douglas Preston 1969
Brown William Scott 1970
Case, Jr. Philip Benham 1970 1
Downing III Earl S. 1970 1970
Eyre Lawrence L. 1970 1970
Friedland Johnathan David 1970
Greenberg Stephen David 1970 Hodes Douglas Michael 1970
Jackson Terrence John 1970 1970
Miller Thomas Clairborne 1970
Morgan Robert McNair 1970 1970
Ohene-Frempong Kwaku 1970
Peters Daniel James 1970 1970
Scattergood Thomas B. 1970
Thompson Jonathan Penfield 1970
Trower C. Christopher 1970 1970
Babst, James Anthony 1971
Bryan, James Taylor 1971
Ekfelt Richard (Dick) Henry 1971
Feinerman James Vincent 1971
Fortgang Jeffrey 1971 1971
Galvin Michael Gerard 1971 1971
Halpin Thomas M. 1971 1971
Hernandez Carols Arturo 1971
Inman Robert D. 1971 1971
Kosturko William Theodore 1971
Levin Charles Herbert 1971 1971
Morgan James W. 1971 1971
Noyes Edward MacArthur 1971
Taft Thomas Prindle 1971 1971
Cangelosi Russell Joseph 1972
Clark Douglas Wells 1972 1972
Csar Michael F. 1972 1972
Evans Peter Seelye 1972 1972
Fisher Scott B. 1972 1972
Lewis Mark Sanders 1972 1972
Lutz Karl Evan 1972 1972
MacDonald II Richard J. 1972
McLaren Michael G. 1972 1972
Moyer Douglas Richard 1972
Ritterbush, Jr. Stephen G. 1972
Salbeh Richard Alan 1972 1972
Walden Robert S. 1972 1972
Wilson Zebuon Vance 1972 1972
Ziegler Stan Warren 1972 1972
Barasch, Alan Sidney 1973
Bellis, Tedric Lawrence 1973
Finney C. Roger 1973 1973
Green Benjamin P. 1973 1973
Highfill III Philip Henry 1973 1973
Huey Mark Christopher 1973 1973
Liles Coit Redfearn 1973 1973
Lonsdorf David B. 1973 1973
MacDonald II Stephen Joseph 1973 1973
Mattlin Fred Walter 1973
McPhee Stephen Joseph 1973
Moore David Clement 1973 1973
Scott William Iain 1973 1973
Sulzer James Sothern 1973
Barge, Richard Mason 1974
Bellis, Jon Michael 1974
Bisaro, Larry R. 1974
Cohen Robert Lewis 1974 1974
Connors David Michael 1974 1974
Diamond Peter C. 1974 1974
Doyle, Jr. Thomas James 1974
Eisenberg Bruce Alan 1974 1974
Gonzalez Timoteo F. 1974 1974
Lewis George Emanuel 1974 1974
Murchison Brian Cameron 1974
Spear Wesley John 1974 1974
Thorne Charles Hedges McKinstry 1974 1974
Ashenfelter, Alan Thompson 1975
Bender, Kenneth Arthur 1975
Buckley, Christopher Taylor 1975
Burke III James Eugene 1975 1
English, Jr. William Deshay 1975
Gaines Edwin Frank 1975 1975
Green Rudolph 1975 1975
MacKenzie Kenneth Malcolm 1975 1975
Reigeluth Douglas Scott 1975
 David 1975 1975
Struzzi Thomas Allen 1975 1975
Wald Stephen George 1975 1975
Zorthian Gregory Jannig 1975
Blattner, Robert William 1976
Brubaker, John Kim 1976
Capozzalo Douglas Daniel 1976
Casscells Christopher Dyson 1976 1976
Childs Starling Winston 1976
Davies, Philip Turner 1976
Fort Donald Kenneth 1976 1976
Gates Edward Raymond 1976 1
Gibson, Jr. Richard Channing 1976 1976
Hart Dennis Charles 1976 1976
Leverett Miles Watson 1976 1976
Mehta Arjay Singh 1976 1976
Morgenstern Marc Jaime 1976
Oler, Jr. Clark Kimberly 1976
Williams Darryl L. 1976 1976
Blakely, Marvin 1977
Brubaker, James Robert 1977
Cooper Carnell 1977
Fredericks Joel Richard 1977
Goldberg Richard Julius 1977
Grayson, Jr. William Cabell 1977
Lalley Patrick William 1977 1977
Lawler Quentin John 1977 1977
Newman Thomas Montgomery 1977 1977
Perry David Bulkey 1977 1977
Rimar III Stephen 1977 1977
Schlesinger Daniel Adam 1977
Scott Larry Glenn 1977 1977
Tom III Chan Bruce 1977 1977
Albritton, Paul Berem 1978
Baran, Mark R. 1978
Bassi, Keith Alan 1978
Clark J. Bruce 1978 1978
Gile Lawrence Maclester 1978
Holmes Peter Samuel 1978 1978
Hook Noble 1978 1978
Marinelli David Leonard 1978 1978
Owens Samuel L. 1978 1978
Piel Geoffrey D. 1978 1978
Rizzo Robert John 1978 1978
Roy John Marcus 1978 1978
Sullivan Charles S. 1978 1978
Turner Elvin D. 1978 1978
Brown Robert Nelson 1979
Edozien Anthony O. 1979 1979
Fore John Arthur 1979 1979
Holmbee Jeffrey Arthur 1979 1979
Lorenson David Harold 1979 1979
McNally Edward E. 1979 1979
Moses Jack Thomas 1979 1979
Nondorf Kurt D. 1979 1979
O'Brien Donald Patrick 1979 1979
Peters Eric Brooks 1979 1979
Skrovan Stephen Thomas 1979
Stevenson Charles 1979 1979
Westerfield Richard H. 1979 1979
Wilson Daniel Richard 1979 1979
Yent, Jr. James B. 1979 1979
Austin, Samuel Monroe 1980
Chibundu Maxwell O. 1980 1980
Davenport, George Leovy 1980
DeVore Mark Samuel 1980 1980
Dilworth George Toby 1980 1980
Fleming Andrew T. 1980 1980
Hatem John J. 1980 1980
Lawrence Gary Martin 1980 1980
Mulhern Daniel Kevin 1980 1980
Peters Elliot Remsen 1980 1980
Stevens Eric Eugene 1980 1980
Teig Joseph Benjamin 1980 1980
Tumpane Timothy Michael 1980
Zigerelli Lawrence John 1980 1980
Bullock, Stanton B. (S&B 1981)
Campbell Kimberly C. 1981 1981
Carlsson Mats Erik 1981 1981
Choa Christopher James 1981
Conway, Jr. Joseph Leo 1981 Grandine Thomas Allan 1981
Novosel David Gerard 1981 1981
O'Keefe Regis James 1981 1981
Peters Kenneth Graham 1981
Peterson Paul Clifford 1981 1981
Russell Richard George 1981
Staven Karl Eric 1981 1981
Stratton Daniel James 1981
Tingey Douglas Stuart 1981
Troy Alexander 1981
Bass, James Edward 1982
Breslau, Jonathan 1982
Burkus Gregory James 1982
Campbell Gavin Elliott 1982
Devlin Michael William 1982
Leone Frederick Anthony 1982
McAfee William Andrew 1982
Meyers Bryan Fitch 1982
Murchison Robert W. 1982
Rachlin David Isaiah 1982
Reid Jasper 1982
Salzman Mark Joseph 1982
Sanhago Eddie 1982 1982
Towers Jonathan David 1982
Wright II William Henry 1982
Yang James Ting-Yeh 1982
Abrams, Peter Mark 1983
Brooks, Peter Moody 1983
Cerveris Michael Ernest 1983 1983Franklin Richard David 1983 1983
Gale Frederick Scott 1983
ano III Michael John 1983 1983
Noel Christopher 1983 1983
Pinela Carlos 1983 1983
Sharp Jonathan Douglas 1983
Sheffield John Van Loon 1983
Wagner Victor Edmond 1983 Andrie, Paul James 1984
Graves, Jr. Earl Gilbert 1984 1984
Henston Douglas Robert 1984 1
Herskovits David Nathaniel 1984
Lambert Edward Scott 1984 1984
Litt David Geoffrey 1984 1984
Skibell Steven Alan 1984 1984
Urquijo Conzalo 1984 1984
Weinstein Adam 1984 1984
Wiseman II Stephen 1984 1984
Farrar, John Chipman (S&B 1917) 1917/1918
Hadden, Briton 1919/1920
Finney, J.John Warren 1945W
Holmes, George Burgwin 1945W
Mallon, Thomas Ridgway 1945W
O'Brien, Jr. Phillip 1945W
Twichell, Charles Pratt 1945W
Wickwire, Winthrop Ross 1949E
VanAntwerp, Jr. William Meadon 1958E
http://www.the7thfire.com/Politics%20and%20History/skull_and_bones.htm




Documentary about Yale's secret society, 'Skull & Bones'
http://sf.indymedia.org/uploads/skullandbonespart1.rm




CBS News - 60 minutes
Skull & Bones
'Apart from presidents, Bones has included cabinet officers, spies, Supreme Court justices, statesmen and captains of industry'
http://sf.indymedia.org/uploads/cbs60minskullandbones.rm




NBC - Meet the Press
Backing both horses - 'Bush v Kerry'
Neither of these two deny being members of Skull & Bones when asked
Bush
http://www.themedianews.com/video/kerry.wmv



George Bush:
The Unauthorized Biography

http://www.apfn.org/bush/bushb.htm

http://www.apfn.org/bush/bushbook.zip


Skull / Bones 2004
http://www.struat.com/election/

John Forbes Kerry
Excert:
Nor is he a son of the soil or toil. His father was a diplomat and the family was often on the move. John Kerry went to a boarding school in Switzerland, to a top private school in New Hampshire and then to Yale, where he studied law
and joined the secret and elite Skull and Bones club, just as George W Bush did two years later.

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/3003306.stm 

 

THE SECRETS OF BOHEMIAN GROVE
http://www.apfn.org/apfn/grove.htm 

Inside Bohemian Grove:
http://www.fair.org/extra/best-of-extra/bohemian-grove.html

At Skull and Bones, Bush's Secret Club Initiates Ream Gore
http://www.observer.com/pages/story.asp?ID=4136

SOME DISNEY people of interest.
http://www.truth777.netfirms.com/secret%20societies/13%20illuminat%20bloodlines6.htm

THE ILLUMINATI AND THE COUNCIL ON
FOREIGN RELATIONS

http://www.apfn.org/apfn/illuminati.htm


Myron Fagan's Illuminati and Council on Foreign Relations

Myron Fagan recorded his exposť on the Illuminati and Council on Foreign
Relations in the late 1960's on three LP Records. We present his lecture
in six parts representing each side of those Records.



Download free Windows Media Player 7 CLICK HERE

Part 1 http://www.apfn.org/audio/fagan-one.mp3
 
Part 2 http://www.apfn.org/audio/fagan-two.mp3
 
Part 3 http://www.apfn.org/audio/fagan-three.mp3
 
Part 4 http://www.apfn.org/audio/fagan-four.mp3
 
Part 5 http://www.apfn.org/audio/fagan-five.mp3
 
Part 6
http://www.apfn.org/audio/fagan-six.mp3 

 


Just click "search" for more information on Satanists:

Google
 
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www.apfn.net

SATAN  (even had the nerve to)  TEMPT JESUS:

Matthew 4: 1-10
1 Then was Jesus led up of the Spirit into the wilderness to be tempted of the devil.
2 And when he had fasted forty days and forty nights, he was afterward an hungred.
3 And when the tempter came to him, he said, If thou be the Son of God, command that these stones be made bread.
4 But he answered and said, It is written, Man shall not live by bread alone, but by every word that proceedeth out of the mouth of God.
5 Then the devil taketh him up into the holy city, and setteth him on a pinnacle of the temple,
6 And saith unto him, If thou be the Son of God, cast thyself down: for it is written, He shall give his angels charge concerning thee: and in their hands they shall bear thee up, lest at any time thou dash thy foot against a stone.

7 Jesus said unto him, It is written again, Thou shalt not tempt the Lord thy God.
8 Again, the devil taketh him up into an exceeding high mountain, and sheweth him all the kingdoms of the world, and the glory of them;

9 And saith unto him, All these things will I give thee, if thou wilt fall down and worship me.
10 Then saith Jesus unto him, Get thee hence, Satan: for it is written, Thou shalt worship the Lord thy God, and him only shalt thou serve.



 

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