04/25/06 Audio: Ron Paul re: Money
http://tinyurl.com/y85uhmz  (7.75MB)

Is the Fed Unconstitutional?

Congressional Record Dec. 23 1913
Public Law 63-43, Federal Reserve Act, December 23, 1913


How The Destruction Of The Dollar Threatens
The Global Economy And What We Can Do About It



The Biggest Scam In The History Of Mankind (Debt Ceiling Truth)



Breaking Inequality - Full documentary - Government Petition


Ron Paul vs Bernanke: Is Gold Money? - July 13, 2011



The Corporation of the United States of America.


WAKE UP AMERICA!!! - Secrets of the Federal Reserve



Overdose: The Next Financial Crisis


Meltup 54min 37 sec



(Official Movie) THRIVE: What On Earth Will It Take?


The Obama Deception - 1:51:21 - Mar 12, 2009


When Bankers Attack....What a Criminal Cartel Looks Like in Action... Real TV

Monopoly Men (Federal Reserve Fraud) (1999) - 47:22


Money, Banking and the Federal Reserve Full Video 42 min


Lawsuit Forces FED to Release Documents


Compiled by Alexander James alexjamesinfo@gmail.com : v 7.11, December 2010

The 2300 Worthless Pages of Legislation –
More Bureaucracy, More Paperwork and ...

Financial Reform Power-to-the-Federal-Reserve
My Loans Consolidated (blog) - Elisheva Wiriaatmadja - What the financial reform bill is really doing is create more and more bureaucracy, more paperwork and even more power to the Federal Reserve. ...

July 15, 2010 FINANCIAL REFORM: Here is the link to the bill in PDF form The table of contents alone is 15 pages long.

6/15/10 RYW: Financial Coup

Financial Coup
Monday June 14, 2010

Author and ex-banker John Truman Wolfe argued that the current world economic crisis is an international coup designed to take down the U.S. dollar and install a global financial machine. First hour guest Richard C. Hoagland commented on such...
Host: George Noory
Guest(s): John Truman Wolfe, Richard C. Hoagland
Gulf Oil Crisis

6/15/10 RYW: Financial Coup “It’s a coup d’état."
MP3 -




The Ascent of Money
Bread, cash, dosh, dough, loot: Call it what you like, it matters. To Christians, love of it is the root of all evil. To generals, it’s the sinews of war. To revolutionaries, it’s the chains of labour. But in The Ascent of Money, Niall Ferguson shows that finance is in fact the foundation of human progress. What’s more, he reveals financial history as the essential back-story behind all history.The evolution of credit and debt was as important as any technological innovation in the rise of civilization, from ancient Babylon to the silver mines of Bolivia. Banks provided the material basis for the splendours of the Italian Renaissance, while the bond market was the decisive factor in conflicts from the Seven Years’ War to the American Civil War.

With the clarity and verve for which he is famed, Niall Ferguson explains why the origins of the French Revolution lie in a stock market bubble caused by a convicted Scots murderer. He shows how financial failure turned Argentina from the world’s sixth richest country into an inflation-ridden basket case – and how a financial revolution is propelling the world’s most populous country from poverty to power in a single generation.

Yet the most important lesson of the financial history is that sooner or later every bubble bursts – sooner or later the bearish sellers outnumber the bullish buyers – sooner or later greed flips into fear. And that’s why, whether you’re scraping by or rolling in it, there’s never been a better time to understand the ascent of money. http://www.niallferguson.com/site/FERG/Templates/Home.aspx?pageid=1%20 
Buy the Book at Amazon: http://www.amazon.com/dp/1594201927/?tag=googhydr-20&hvadid=2559758335&ref=pd_sl_3jsgq3vr7_b




America Freedom to Fascism Authorized version - Google Video

INTERVIEW: Aaron Russo's 'America: Freedom to Fascism'
9/26/06 AUDIO: 7 - 8 am

9/26/06 AUDIO: 8 - 9 am

Good to his word, Aaron Russo has made the America: Freedom to Fascism
movie available, free, on the internet. Also, you will find on the same page, two other movies that will giveinsight on how our Republic and our Sovereignty
has been compromised so that now we are on the brink of slavery to a
one world dictatorship. This is a must seefilm and I urge you to take advantage of this opportunity. Best, Leonard


Money as debt 




Please don't go any further if you have not read the above.
We would not be on the same page and wasting our love.
We need everybody's brain power, we need solutions.

Proof from the Feds about your bank Loan

A machine was invented that would produce unlimited energy

Inventor Claims Discovery of Free Energy

The Bankruptcy of the United States

God, Gold, the Fed and Capitulation


Money, a Belief System
By Zuerrnnovahh-Starr Livingstone

The How and Why of a New Monetary System

Solutions RE: It's Time To Circle The Wagons

The Federal Reserve Is A privately Owned Corporation

Government has its eye on your money !

Nature and history of the PRIVATE international banks
CALLED 'The Federal Reserve System'



---- Patrick Henry

Operation Mockingbird -

The Money Masters


 A Phone Call To The Fed

World Money

Congressman McFadden
on the Federal Reserve Corporation
Remarks in Congress, 1934

The Root of Your Economic Problems


Explosive Revelation$

The world’s biggest banks and multinational corporations have set up a shadowy system to secretly move trillions of dollars—a system that can be exploited by tax evaders, drug runners and even terrorists. Ernest Backes, circa 1981. Ernest Backes exposed this dubious system and has launched a personal crusade for international oversight—earning him some high-powered and dangerous enemies.
Explosive Revelation$, part 1



The Real Story of the Money-Control Over America

President Kennedy, the Federal Reserve and Executive Order 11110

Moneypulation (Money Manipulation)

What the President Should Know about our Monetary System



The Money Issue



The Fed, The Fed, The Fed


Federal Reserve 3/20/01
How your money -- and life -- are controlled by America's banking system

You Work Hard For Your Money
- But What's Money?

Folks seldom think about what they're using for money. Money is a very complicated and little-known subject. This week The Spotlight takes a look at Federal Reserve Notes and other forms of American money. You may be suprised to find out that Federal Reserve Notes were backed by gold for 20 years. After being taken off the gold standard, the notes were still redeemable in "Lawful Money." The Spotlight traces 83 years of the Federal Reserve's funny money.

A Special Supplement to The Spotlight - Published in Volume XXII, #6, February 12, 1996 Federal Reserve System's Funny Money Explained

Since 1913 bankers have cheated the American people with their fraudulent money.

If you tell the average American on the street that the money in his pocket is no good,then you are liable to get a strange look or worse.

After all, those Federal Reserve Notes serve as a medium of exchange for goods,
services and in settlement of debt. And Section 411 of Title 31 of the U.S. Code
establishes Federal Reserve Notes as obligations of the U.S. government.

But the closer one looks at today's Federal Reserve Notes, and the sinister creation of debt-based money by banks with literally the stroke of a pen (or today, a computer keyboard), the more likely one is to conclude these notes aren't worth the paper upon which they are printed.

For example, today's paper currency has "THIS NOTE IS LEGAL TENDER FOR ALL DEBTS, PUBLIC AND PRIVATE" inscribed on the note. But the note doesn't tell you who, or what is backing the bill.

GOLD STANDARD >From 1878 until 1938, U.S. currency was backed by gold. Before that, dating back to 1792, Congress followed a bi-metallic standard under which gold and silver served as dollars.

When Federal Reserve Notes were originally issued in 1914, the gold standard was in practice. The bills were engraved on the reverse with:


While many debate the legality of the Federal Reserve, and consequently the lawfulness of these notes, there is no doubt that in 1914 through 1938 the notes were backed by "... gold or lawful money... " (emphasis added).

In 1938, President Franklin Delano Roosevelt issued an executive order to recall all gold and gold certificates.

A year later, Congress passed the Gold Reserve Act which modified the gold standard with a devalued dollar. FDR then issued a proclamation reducing the gold content of the dollar to 59 percent of what was established by the Gold Standard Act of 1900.

A statement on the front of 1950 series Federal Reserve Notes says:


A statement at the bottom of the note says: WILL PAY TO THE BEARER ON DEMAND (followed by the denomination).

These notes were known as credit money - paper money backed by promises by the issuer to pay an equivalent value in the standard monetary metal. Soon thereafter, the Federal Reserve stopped any pretense of backing the notes with "lawful money." By 1963, the U.S. Treasury and Federal Reserve quit promising to pay anything. The 1963 series Federal Reserve Note declares: THIS NOTE IS LEGAL TENDER FOR ALL DEBTS, PUBLIC AND PRIVATE.

This is what is known as fiat money--paper money that is not redeemable in any other type of money.

The problem with today's fiat money is that it is certificates of indebtedness--promissory notes issued as payment for government bonds which fraudulently require taxpayers to pay annual interest.

Yes, that's right. Politicians require taxpayers to pay interest on their own money. No greater fraud can be imagined. As Thomas Edison once said, "if the government can print bonds, it can print currency."

The nation is, conservatively speaking, nearly $5 trillion in debt, and the Federal Reserve creates "money" out of this debt.

Since Congress handed over the responsibility of making money to the central bank, and the dollar has been taken off the gold standard, nothing backs Federal Reserve Notes.

Around the same time bankers ceased redeeming lawful money, Congress was thoughtful enough to add "In God We Trust" to Federal Reserve Notes. Politicians, if not bankers, want money to have some auspices.

The Treasury still creates coins, but no longer prints U.S. Notes, according to a historian with the Bureau of Printing and Engraving. Some old U.S. Notes are in stock. These, combined with coins, are about the only real money left in circulation (which leads to the conclusion that since coins are issued by the Treasury, and thus carry no debt, a one-dollar coin would be a blessing to the economy.

But it is anathema for bankers for that reason. No wonder newspapers and pundits
regularly condemn a one dollar coin.)

The philosophical question for the day is: If you own a promissory note to pay nothing, what will you do when the plutocratic powers that create and control our money supply decree that nothing is exactly what you will get?

Date: Sat, 18 Apr 1998 21:15:36 -0400
From: "Mark A. Smith" msmith01@flash.net 

Secret Service Raids E-Gold
Fri Mar 30 13:27:23 2001

Secret Service Raids E-Gold
by Declan McCullagh (declan@wired.com )
11:10 a.m. Mar. 30, 2001 PST

WASHINGTON -- The Secret Service has raided a New York state business
that exchanged dollars for grams of the digital currency called

A bevy of agents from the Secret Service, Postal Service and local
police recently detained the owners of Gold-Age, based in Syracuse,
and seized computers, files and documents from the fledgling firm.

U.S. Attorney Daniel French said Friday that the investigation
involved charges of credit card fraud. "We haven't brought charges
yet," French said. "We're in the investigative phase."

Gold-Age owner Parker Bradley says that during his eight-hour
interrogation on March 12, the Secret Service seemed less interested
in credit card fraud and more interested in the mechanics of e-gold.
Until last year, Bradley accepted credit cards and paid out e-gold,
but said he quit because too many people used stolen credit cards when
conducting business with him.

"The interrogation became less about me and more about politics and
e-gold," Bradley said. "They were trying to get me to blame e-gold for
fraud. Just to be blunt, these guys have no clue about how e-commerce
works, how e-gold works or what I was doing."

E-gold is a 5-year-old firm based on the Caribbean island of Nevis
that provides an electronic currency backed by physical metal stored
in vaults in London and Dubai. The company says it has 181,000 user
accounts and stores about 1.4 metric tons of gold on behalf of its

Bradley's Gold-Age company, which he ran with his wife out of their
home until the raid, was one of about a dozen e-gold currency exchange
services: He took dollars and credited grams of gold, silver, platinum
and palladium to a customer's account, less a modest fee.


Still unclear is why the raid took place. French indicated that it
could be more than a routine credit card investigation, saying "at
this point, it's being investigated as a credit card fraud."

One possibility is a broader investigation directed at some users of
e-gold, which is less anonymous than cash but more anonymous than
credit cards. Former Treasury Secretary Lawrence Summers has warned of
malcontents using the Net and encryption to dodge taxes, and it's
possible that the feds don't exactly approve of a system that's more
privacy-protective than the heavily regulated banking system.

Current federal regulations require banks and credit unions -- about
19,000 in all -- to inform federal law enforcement of all transactions
$5,000 and above that have no "apparent lawful purpose or are not the
sort in which the particular customer would normally be expected to

Because e-gold is not a bank that lends money -- it's more akin to a
warehouse that stores gold on behalf of its customers -- it's not
covered by those rules.

Mike Godwin said the raid evokes memories of the notorious Steve
Jackson Games raid by the Secret Service a decade ago, which led to
the formation of the Electronic Frontier Foundation.
Declan McCullagh

Web of Debt - How Banks And The Federal Reserve Are Bankrupting ...
Ellen Brown has used Web of Debt to expose important
information regarding out nation's debt and the dwindli
spiral of our economy. http://www.webofdebt.com

Web of Debt - Ellen Brown - 1 of 5

Web of Debt - Ellen Brown - 2 of 5

Web of Debt - Ellen Brown - 3 of 5

Web of Debt - Ellen Brown - 4 of 5

Web of Debt - Ellen Brown - 5 of 5

"I know of no safe depository of the ultimate powers of
society, but the people themselves; and if we think them not
enlightened enough to exercise their control with a
wholesome discretion, the remedy is not to take it from them,
but to inform their discretion..."
Thomas Jefferson, 1821

Comprehensive Annual Financial Reports

Lawyers Weekly USA - Problem / Soulation - Advise


Tue Mar 20 10:13:04 2001

U.S.Constitution Article III Section 3 Defines TREASON as:

"Treason; definition, proof and punishment. Treason against the United
States, shall consist only in levying War against them, or in adhering
to their Enemies, giving them Aid and Comfort...."

The enemy of the United States is the United Nations (The New World
Order). which is attempting to eliminate the sovereign status of this country,
and one of the necessary steps towards that goal is the confiscation of
our guns.

Our Congressman here in the Second District of Oregon, Congressman Greg
Walden, does not vote according to his oath of office to support and defend
the Constitution..."so help me God." He votes according to what passes for
his conscience, or, to state it another way, simply whether he agrees or
disagrees with the proposed legislation; Constitution or Conscience

Giving Aid and Comfort to the Enemy - such as the United Nations - can be
a hanging offense.

Congressman Walden has voted numerous times in violation of the Second
Amendment, which forbids infringements on the absolute right to keep and
bear arms. That, in my opinion, definitely constitutes giving Aid and
Comfort to an Enemy sworn to our destruction. And such treason requires
two witnesses. His voting record is one, and I'm the second.

Hanging would be a suitable punishment, but I would prefer a more
poetic-type penalty - after his trial and conviction - such as execution
by a firing squad composed of members of a legittimate gun club that's
dedicated to the preservation of the Second Amendment.

But... considering the present Masonic/Illuminati-controlled Congress,
it would be next to impossible of finding any traitor guilty of anything.

So...in the final analysis. that puts it back in the hands of the voters.

The only solution: Vote ALL such anti-gun, anti-Second Amendment
traitors out of office.


"William D. & Johanna R." - fergiesx@connpoint.net

Chris Athanas
Wed Apr 4 06:01:59 2001


There are some real solutions that individuals can take to change the fiat currency/income tax system/NWO/welfare state problem themselves. These solutions are much more effective than voting, writing their congressman, petitioning, talking on the phone, faxing letters, parading, running for office, putting up web sites, rioting, various violent actions, threats or derogatory comments. No, nothing like that will ever change anything, anymore...

When the government controls the money, the government controls the people. When the people control the money, the people control the government. It's a simple, obvious truth.

The essential idea is to simply deny the government the use of it's funny money. Sounds great, but how?

The reality is that the age of digital money has finally dawned, brought to fruition with the convergence of multiple modern technologies including inexpensive and powerful microchips, free access to the internet, open worldwide commodity markets operating 24 hours a day, publicly available military strength encryption and other technologies.

Digital money is a form of currency that is tied to real assets (wealth like gold), and the ownership of the assets can be digitally transferred around the world, instantaneously, anonymously, inexpensively and very securely. All this without any government being able to see any of it!

It's a very exciting time to be alive, truly!

Please read the report at www.gold.org , "Research Study 24: Digital Money & it's Impact on Gold" - upper left corner of the page. I think they should have titled it "Digital Money and it's Impact on FREEDOM", it is just that revolutionary. Its only about 40 pages and you can skim it very quickly to see if what I am saying bears looking into. The very wealthy already protect their assets in similar ways, but now this level of protection is available to everyone, instantaneously, anonymously, inexpensively, very securely and without government intervention.

This will allow you to have a better understanding of the significance of Digital money with examples like www.e-gold.com , www.paypal.com , www.GoldMoney.com  and especially www.3pgold.com . This is not meant to be a commercial advertisement, as there will be literally hundreds if not thousands of these private currency systems, all strewn around the world, competing for your business.

The author of the report, Richard W. Rahn, has appeared before congress over 75 times, speaking about this issue. He also wrote a groundbreaking book in 1999 called "The End of Money", available on www.amazon.com . It clearly details how digital currency will take over global markets as a true standard of wealth and commerce. Governments will be FORCED to follow suit and tie their national currencies to a "basket" of commodities (probably including gold) that represent the real wealth of their economies, and this will also cause them to ABANDON their fiat currencies and destructive taxing schemes. They will have zero choice in the matter. FUN FUN FUN! Do a search on "Richard W. Rahn", and go to www.discovery.org  for more information.

The government is all too well aware of what is going on, they are just in COMPLETE DENIAL! Look at how they are reacting to it! Like any wild animal being forced back into a cage, they are making many loud noises and lashing out violently... quite sad, really.

All that does not matter. It's a new era. If the governments of the world want to have any power at all, they have NO CHOICE but to capitulate to this new world of freedom. Its already here now! What a time to be alive!

So, please learn about the digital money phenomenon, specifically with 3PGold.com as a standard for all private digital currencies.

Also, check out www.mondex.com  for examples of smart card technologies.

The digital currency wave is already coming on shore, why not RIDE IT!

Yours in Liberty,
http://www.realityexpander.com/  site down
Who Owns The Federal Reserve?

There has been much speculation about who owns the Federal Reserve Corporation. It has been one of the great secrets of the century, because the Federal Reserve Act of 1913 provided that the names of the owner banks be kept secret. However, R. E. McMaster publisher of the newsletter The Reaper, asked his Swiss banking contacts which banks hold the controlling stock in the Federal Reserve Corporation. The Federal System is by the way a private Corporation # 62 domiciled in Puerto Rico.

The answer to who owns the Fed and by proxy the entire USA:

Rothschild Banks of London and Berlin
Lazard Brothers Bank of Paris
Israel Moses Sieff Banks of Italy
Warburg Bank of Hamburg and Amsterdam
Lehman Brothers Bank of New York
Kuhn Loeb Bank of New York
Chase Manhattan Bank of New York
Goldman Sachs Bank of New York.

In The Secrets Of The Federal Reserve, Eustace Mullins indicates that, because the Federal Reserve Bank of New York sets interest rates and controls the daily supply and price of currency throughout the U.S., the owners of that bank are the real directors of the entire system. Mullins states:

"The shareholders of these banks which own the stock of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York are the people who have controlled our political and economic destinies since 1914.

They are the Rothschilds,
Lazard Freres (Eugene Mayer),
Israel Sieff,
Kuhn Loeb Company,
Warburg Company,
Lehman Brothers,
Goldman Sachs,
the Rockefeller family, and the
J.P. Morgan interests."


to wit:

There is a TYRANNY underway, and it is nearly complete - The deliberate systematic disarming of the NATION!! The goal: destroy America's sovereignty and meld it, defenseless right to the individual, into a one world government system. There are millions in this nation who are prepared to fight that conclusion, regardless of the cost to themselves.

The Money Trail
The Short Road To Chaos And Destruction
An Expose of the Federal Reserve Banking System
The End of Ordinary Money, Part I
The End of Ordinary Money, Part II:


* Buy back the FED and have the U.S. Government collect all profits.
* Abolish the FED by printing real U.S. dollars as President Kennedy
attempted (Executive Order 11.110, 1963) (Reference 4).
* Request your county/state to use their Constitutional powers to
abolish the FED. This is the BEST SOLUTION. Nearly half the states
are attempting or considering this action (Reference 5). Congress
has had 80 years to follow the Constitution, and has refused to
abolish the illegal FED. The state/county effort is working faster
than any other method. We need your support to start a local chapter
of FED-UP(tm) Inc. and petition your county.

Banking & Federal Reserve Quotes

"The entire taxing and monetary systems are hereby placed under the U.C.C. (Uniform Commercial Code)" -- The Federal Tax Lien Act of 1966

"The few who understand the system, will either be so interested from it's profits or so dependant on it's favors, that there will be no opposition from that class." -- Rothschild Brothers of London, 1863

"Give me control of a nation's money and I care not who makes it's laws" -- Mayer Amschel Bauer Rothschild

"Most Americans have no real understanding of the operation of the international money lenders. The accounts of the Federal Reserve System have never been audited. It operates outside the control of Congress and manipulates the credit of the United States" -- Sen. Barry Goldwater (Rep. AR)

"Whoever controls the volume of money in any country is absolute master of all industry and commerce." -- James A. Garfield, President of the United States

"Banks lend by creating credit. They create the means of payment out of nothing" -- Ralph M. Hawtrey, Secretary of the British Treasury

"To expose a 15 Trillion dollar ripoff of the American people by the stockholders of the 1000 largest corporations over the last 100 years will be a tall order of business." -- Buckminster Fuller

"Every Congressman, every Senator knows precisely what causes inflation...but can't, [won't] support the drastic reforms to stop it [repeal of the Federal Reserve Act] because it could cost him his job." -- Robert A. Heinlein, Expanded Universe

"It is well that the people of the nation do not understand our banking and monetary system, for if they did, I believe there would be a revolution before tomorrow morning." -- Henry Ford

"The regional Federal Reserve banks are not government agencies. ...but are independent, privately owned and locally controlled corporations." -- Lewis vs. United States, 680 F. 2d 1239 9th Circuit 1982

"We have, in this country, one of the most corrupt institutions the world has ever known. I refer to the Federal Reserve Board. This evil institution has impoverished the people of the United States and has practically bankrupted our government. It has done this through the corrupt practices of the moneyed vultures who control it". -- Congressman Louis T. McFadden in 1932 (Rep. Pa)

"The Federal Reserve banks are one of the most corrupt institutions the world has ever seen. There is not a man within the sound of my voice who does not know that this nation is run by the International bankers -- Congressman Louis T. McFadden (Rep. Pa)

"Some people think the Federal Reserve Banks are the United States government's institutions. They are not government institutions. They are private credit monopolies which prey upon the people of the United States for the benefit of themselves and their foreign swindlers" -- Congressional Record 12595-12603 -- Louis T. McFadden, Chairman of the Committee on Banking and Currency (12 years) June 10, 1932

"[Every circulating FRN] represents a one dollar debt to the Federal Reserve system." -- Money Facts, House Banking and Currency Committee

"...the increase in the assets of the Federal Reserve banks from 143 million dollars in 1913 to 45 billion dollars in 1949 went directly to the private stockholders of the [federal reserve] banks." -- Eustace Mullins

"As soon as Mr. Roosevelt took office, the Federal Reserve began to buy government securities at the rate of ten million dollars a week for 10 weeks, and created one hundred million dollars in new [checkbook] currency, which alleviated the critical famine of money and credit, and the factories started hiring people again." -- Eustace Mullins

"Should government refrain from regulation (taxation), the worthlessness of the money becomes apparent and the fraud can no longer be concealed." -- John Maynard Keynes, "Consequences of Peace."

"By this means government may secretly and unobserved, confiscate the wealth of the people, and not one man in a million will detect the theft."--John Maynard Keynes (the father of 'Keynesian Economics' which our nation now endures) in his book "THE ECONOMIC CONSEQUENCES OF THE PEACE" (1920).

"These 12 corporations together cover the whole country and monopolize and use for private gain every dollar of the public currency..." -- Mr. Crozier of Cincinnati, before Senate Banking and Currency Committee - 1913

"A great industrial nation is controlled by it's system of credit. Our system of credit is concentrated in the hands of a few men. We have come to be one of the worst ruled, one of the most completely controlled and dominated governments in the world--no longer a government of free opinion, no longer a government by conviction and vote of the majority, but a government by the opinion and duress of small groups of dominant men." --President Woodrow Wilson

"We are completely dependant on the commercial banks. Someone has to borrow every dollar we have in circulation, cash or credit. If the banks create ample synthetic money we are prosperous; if not, we starve. We are absolutely without a permanent money system.... It is the most important subject intelligent persons can investigate and reflect upon. It is so important that our present civilization may collapse unless it becomes widely understood and the defects remedied very soon." --Robert H. Hamphill, Atlanta Federal Reserve Bank

"The Federal Reserve Banks are not federal instrumentalities..." -- Lewis vs. United States 9th Circuit 1992

"The Federal Reserve banks, while not part of the government,..." -- United States budget for 1991 and 1992 part 7, page 10

"The Federal Reserve bank buys government bonds without one penny..." -- Congressman Wright Patman, Congressional Record, Sept 30, 1941

"The Federal Reserve system pays the U.S. Treasury 020.60 per thousand notes --a little over 2 cents each-- without regard to the face value of the note. Federal Reserve Notes, incidentally, are the only type of currency now produced for circulation. They are printed exclusively by the Treasury's Bureau of Engraving and Printing, and the $20.60 per thousand price reflects the Bureau's full cost of production. Federal Reserve Notes are printed in 01, 02, 05, 10, 20, 50, and 100 dollar denominations only; notes of 500, 1000, 5000, and 10,000 denominations were last printed in 1945." --Donald J. Winn, Assistant to the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve system

"Neither paper currency nor deposits have value as commodities, intrinsically, a 'dollar' bill is just a piece of paper. Deposits are merely book entries." -- Modern Money Mechanics Workbook, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago, 1975

"This [Federal Reserve Act] establishes the most gigantic trust on earth. When the President [Wilson} signs this bill, the invisible government of the monetary power will be legalized....the worst legislative crime of the ages is perpetrated by this banking and currency bill." -- Charles A. Lindbergh, Sr. , 1913

"From now on, depressions will be scientifically created." -- Congressman Charles A.
Lindbergh Sr. , 1913

"The financial system has been turned over to the Federal Reserve Board. That Board as ministers the finance system by authority of a purely profiteering group. The system is Private, conducted for the sole purpose of obtaining the greatest possible profits from the use of other people's money" -- Charles A. Lindbergh Sr., 1923

"The [Federal Reserve Act] as it stands seems to me to open the way to a vast inflation of the currency... I do not like to think that any law can be passed that will make it possible to submerge the gold standard in a flood of irredeemable paper currency." -- Henry Cabot Lodge Sr., 1913

"When you or I write a check there must be sufficient funds in out account to cover the check, but when the Federal Reserve writes a check there is no bank deposit on which that check is drawn. When the Federal Reserve writes a check, it is creating money." -- Putting it simply, Boston Federal
Reserve Bank

"There is a distinction between a 'debt discharged' and a debt 'paid'. When discharged, the debt still exists though divested of it's charter as a legal obligation during the operation of the discharge, something of the original vitality of the debt continues to exist, which may be transferred, even though the transferee takes it subject to it's disability incident to the discharge." --Stanek vs. White,
172 Minn.390, 215 N.W. 784

"I have never seen more Senators express discontent with their jobs....I think the major cause is that, deep down in our hearts, we have been accomplices in doing something terrible and unforgiveable to our wonderful country. Deep down in our heart, we know that we have given our children a legacy of bankruptcy. We have defrauded our country to get ourselves elected." -- John
Danforth (R-Mo)

"Capital must protect itself in every way...Debts must be collected and loans and mortgages foreclosed as soon as possible. When through a process of law the common people have lost their homes, they will be more tractable and more easily governed by the strong arm of the law applied by the central power of leading financiers. People without homes will not quarrel with their leaders. This is well known among our principal men now engaged in forming an imperialism of capitalism to govern the world. By dividing the people we can get them to expend their energies in fighting over
questions of no importance to us except as teachers of the common herd."-- Taken from the Civil Servants' Year Book, "The Organizer" January 1934.

Founding Father's Quotes on Banking (Maybe some repeats from "Founding Father's Quotes" / Information tends to converge)

"I believe that banking institutions are more dangerous to our liberties than standing armies. Already they have raised up a monied aristocracy that has set the government at defiance. The issuing power (of money) should be taken away from the banks and restored to the people to whom it properly belongs."--Thomas Jefferson, U.S. President.

"If Congress has the right [it doesn't] to issue paper money [currency], it was given to them to be used by...[the government] and not to be delegated to individuals or corporations" -- President Andrew Jackson, Vetoed Bank Bill of 1836

"History records that the money changers have used every form of abuse, intrigue, deceit, and violent means possible to maintain their control over governments by controlling money and it's issuance". -- James Madison



Below are excerpts from a court case proving the Federal Reserve system’s status. As you will see, the court ruled that the Federal Reserve Banks are "independent, privately owned and locally controlled corporations", and there is not sufficient "federal government control over ‘detailed physical performance’ and ‘day to day operation’" of the Federal Reserve Bank for it to be considered a federal agency.:

Lewis v. United States, 680 F.2d 1239 (1982)

John L. Lewis, Plaintiff/Appellant,


United States of America, Defendant/Appellee.

No. 80-5905

United States Court of Appeals, Ninth Circuit.

Submitted March 2, 1982.

Decided April 19, 1982.

As Amended June 24, 1982.

Plaintiff, who was injured by vehicle owned and operated by a federal reserve bank, brought action alleging jurisdiction under the Federal Tort Claims Act. The United States District Court for the Central District of California, David W. Williams, J., dismissed holding that federal reserve bank was not a federal agency within meaning of Act and that the court therefore lacked subject-matter jurisdiction. Appeal was taken. The Court of Appeals, Poole, Circuit Judge, held that federal reserve banks are not federal instrumentalities for purposes of the Act, but are independent, privately owned and locally controlled corporations.


1. United States

There are no sharp criteria for determining whether an entity is a federal agency within meaning of the Federal Tort Claims Act, but critical factor is existence of federal government control over "detailed physical performance" and "day to day operation" of an entity. . . .

2. United States

Federal reserve banks are not federal instrumentalities for purposes of a Federal Tort Claims Act, but are independent, privately owned and locally controlled corporations in light of fact that direct supervision and control of each bank is exercised by board of directors, federal reserve banks, though heavily regulated, are locally controlled by their member banks, banks are listed neither as "wholly owned" government corporations nor as "mixed ownership" corporations; federal reserve banks receive no appropriated funds from Congress and the banks are empowered to sue and be sued in their own names. . . .

3. United States

Under the Federal Tort Claims Act, federal liability is narrowly based on traditional agency principles and does not necessarily lie when a tortfeasor simply works for an entity, like the Reserve Bank, which performs important activities for the government. . . .

4. Taxation

The Reserve Banks are deemed to be federal instrumentalities for purposes of immunity from state taxation.

5. States Taxation

Tests for determining whether an entity is federal instrumentality for purposes of protection from state or local action or taxation, is very broad: whether entity performs important governmental function.

Lafayette L. Blair, Compton, Cal., for plaintiff/appellant.

James R. Sullivan, Asst. U.S. Atty., Los Angeles, Cal., argued, for defendant/appellee; Andrea Sheridan Ordin, U.S. Atty., Los Angeles, Cal., on brief.

Appeal from the United States District Court for the Central District of California.

Before Poole and Boochever, Circuit Judges, and Soloman, District Judge. (The Honorable Gus J. Solomon, Senior District Judge for the District of Oregon, sitting by designation)

Poole, Circuit Judge:

On July 27, 1979, appellant John Lewis was injured by a vehicle owned and operated by the Los Angeles branch of the Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco. Lewis brought this action in district court alleging jurisdiction under the Federal Tort Clains Act (the Act), 28 U.S.C. Sect. 1346(b). The United States moved to dismiss for lack of subject matter jurisdiction. The district court dismissed, holding that the Federal Reserve Bank is not a federal agency within the meaning of the Act and that the court therefore lacked subject matter jurisdiction. We affirm.

In enacting the Federal Tort Claims Act, Congress provided a limited waiver of the sovereign immunity of the United States for certain torts of federal employees. . . . Specifically, the Act creates liability for injuries "caused by the negligent or wrongful act or omission" of an employee of any federal agency acting within the scope of his office or employment. . . . "Federal agency" is defined as:

the executive departments, the military departments, independent establishments of the United States, and corporations acting primarily as instrumentalities of the United States, but does not include any contractors with the United States.

28 U.S.C. Sect. 2671. The liability of the United States for the negligence of a Federal Reserve Bank employee depends, therefore, on whether the Bank is a federal agency under Sect. 2671.

[1,2] There are no sharp criteria for determining whether an entity is a federal agency within the meaning of the Act, but the critical factor is the existence of federal government control over the "detailed physical performance" and "day to day operation" of that entity. . . . Other factors courts have considered include whether the entity is an independent corporation . . ., whether the government is involved in the entity’s finances. . . ., and whether the mission of the entity furthers the policy of the United States, . . . Examining the organization and function of the Federal Reserve Banks, and applying the relevant factors, we conclude that the Reserve Banks are not federal instrumentalities for purpose of the FTCA, but are independent, privately owned and locally controlled corporations.

Each Federal Reserve Bank is a separate corporation owned by commercial banks in its region. The stockholding commercial banks elect two thirds of each Bank’s nine member board of directors. The remaining three directors are appointed by the Federal Reserve Board. The Federal Reserve Board regulates the Reserve Banks, but direct supervision and control of each Bank is exercised by its board of directors. 12 U.S.C. Sect. 301. The directors enact by-laws regulating the manner of conducting general Bank business, 12 U.S.C. Sect. 341, and appoint officers to implement and supervise daily Bank activities. These activites include collecting and clearing checks, making advances to private and commercial entities, holding reserves for member banks, discounting the notes of member banks, and buying and selling securities on the open market. See 12 U.S.C. Sub-Sect. 341-361.

Each Bank is statutorily empowered to conduct these activities without day to day direction from the federal government. Thus, for example, the interest rates on advances to member banks, individuals, partnerships, and corporations are set by each Reserve Bank and their decisions regarding the purchase and sale of securities are likewise independently made.

It is evident from the legislative history of the Federal Reserve Act that Congress did not intend to give the federal government direction over the daily operation of the Reserve Banks:

It is proposed that the Government shall retain sufficient power over the reserve banks to enable it to exercise a direct authority when necessary to do so, but that it shall in no way attempt to carry on through its own mechanism the routine operations and banking which require detailed knowledge of local and individual credit and which determine the funds of the community in any given instance. In other words, the reserve-bank plan retains to the Government power over the exercise of the broader banking functions, while it leaves to individuals and privately owned institutions the actual direction of routine.

H.R. Report No. 69 Cong. 1st Sess. 18-19 (1913).

The fact that the Federal Reserve Board regulates the Reserve Banks does not make them federal agencies under the Act. In United States v. Orleans, 425 U.S. 807, 96 S.Ct. 1971, 48 L.Ed.2d 390 (1976), the Supreme Court held that a community action agency was not a federal agency or instrumentality for purposes of the Act, even though the agency was organized under federal regulations and heavily funded by the federal government. Because the agency’s day to day operation was not supervised by the federal government, but by local officials, the Court refused to extend federal tort liability for the negligence of the agency’s employees. Similarly, the Federal Reserve Banks, though heavily regulated, are locally controlled by their member banks. Unlike typical federal agencies, each bank is empowered to hire and fire employees at will. Bank employees do not participate in the Civil Service Retirement System. They are covered by worker’s compensation insurance, purchased by the Bank, rather than the Federal Employees Compensation Act. Employees travelling on Bank business are not subject to federal travel regulations and do not receive government employee discounts on lodging and services.

The Banks are listed neither as "wholly owned" government corporations under 31 U.S.C. Sect. 846 nor as "mixed ownership" corporations under 31 U.S.C. Sect. 856, a factor considered is Pearl v. United States, 230 F.2d 243 (10th Cir. 1956), which held that the Civil Air Patrol is not a federal agency under the Act. Closely resembling the status of the Federal Reserve Bank, the Civil Air Patrol is a non-profit, federally chartered corporation organized to serve the public welfare. But because Congress’ control over the Civil Air Patrol is limited and the corporation is not designated as a wholly owned or mixed ownership government corporation under 31 U.S.C. Sub-Sect. 846 and 856, the court concluded that the corporation is a non-governmental, independent entity, not covered under the Act.

Additionally, Reserve Banks, as privately owned entities, receive no appropriated funds from Congress. . . .

Finally, the Banks are empowered to sue and be sued in their own name. 12 U.S.C. Sect. 341. They carry their own liability insurance and typically process and handle their own claims. In the past, the Banks have defended against tort claims directly, through private counsel, not government attorneys . . ., and they have never been required to settle tort claims under the administrative procedure of 28 U.S.C. Sect. 2672. The waiver of sovereign immunity contained in the Act would therefore appear to be inapposite to the Banks who have not historically claimed or received general immunity from judicial process.

[3] The Reserve Banks have properly been held to be federal instrumentalities for some purposes. In United States v. Hollingshead, 672 F.2d 751 (9th Cir. 1982), this court held that a Federal Reserve Bank employee who was responsible for recommending expenditure of federal funds was a "public official" under the Federal Bribery Statute. That statute broadly defines public official to include any person acting "for or on behalf of the Government." . . . The test for determining status as a public official turns on whether there is "substantial federal involvement" in the defendant’s activities. United States v. Hollingshead, 672 F.2d at 754. In contrast, under the FTCA, federal liability is narrowly based on traditional agency principles and does not necessarily lie when the tortfeasor simply works for an entity, like the Reserve Banks, which perform important activities for the government.

[4, 5] The Reserve Banks are deemed to be federal instrumentalities for purposes of immunity from state taxation. . . . The test for determining whether an entity is a federal instrumentality for purposes of protection from state or local action or taxation, however, is very broad: whether the entity performs an important governmental function. . . . The Reserve Banks, which further the nation’s fiscal policy, clearly perform an important governmental function.

Performance of an important governmental function, however, is but a single factor and not determinative in tort claims actions. . . . State taxation has traditionally been viewed as a greater obstacle to an entity’s ability to perform federal functions than exposure to judicial process; therefore tax immunity is liberally applied. . . . Federal tort liability, however, is based on traditional agency principles and thus depends upon the principal’s ability to control the actions of his agent, and not simply upon whether the entity performs an important governmental function. . . .

Brinks Inc. v. Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, 466 F.Supp. 116 (D.D.C.1979), held that a Federal Reserve Bank is a federal instrumentality for purposes of the Service Contract Act, 41 U.S.C. Sect. 351. Citing Federal Reserve Bank of Boston and Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis, the court applied the "important governmental function" test and concluded that the term "Federal Government" in the Service Contract Act must be "liberally construed to effectuate the Act’s humanitarian purpose of providing minimum wage and fringe benefit protection to individuals performing contracts with the federal government." Id. 288 Mich. at 120, 284 N.W.2d 667.

Such a liberal construction of the term "federal agency" for purposes of the Act is unwarranted. Unlike in Brinks, plaintiffs are not without a forum in which to seek a remedy, for they may bring an appropriate state tort claim directly against the Bank; and if successful, their prospects of recovery are bright since the institutions are both highly solvent and amply insured.

For these reasons we hold that the Reserve Banks are not federal agencies for purposes of the Federal Tort Claims Act and we affirm the judgment of the district court.


It is clear from this that in some circumstances, the Federal Reserve Bank can be considered a government "instrumentality", but cannot be considered a "federal agency", because the term carries with it the assumption that the federal government has direct oversight over what the Fed does. Of course it does not, because most people who know about this subject know that the Fed is "politically independent".

The only area where one might disagree with the judge’s decision is where he states that the Fed furthers the federal government’s fiscal policy, and therefore performs an important governmental function. While we would like to think that the federal government and the Fed work cooperatively with each other, and they may on occasion, the Fed is by no means required to do so. One example is where Rep. Wright Patman, Chairman of the House Banking Committee, said in the Congressional Record back in the ‘60s, that depending on the temperament of the Fed’s Chairman, sometimes the Fed worked with the government’s fiscal policy, and other times either went in the complete opposite direction, or threatens to do so in order to influence policy.

The common claim that the Fed is accountable to the government, because it is required to report to Congress on its activities annually, is incorrect. The reports to Congress mean little unless what the Chairman reports can be verified by complete records. From its founding to this day, the Fed has never undergone a complete independent audit. Congress time after time has requested that the Fed voluntarily submit to a complete audit, and every time, it refuses.

Those in the know about the Fed, realize that it does keep certain records secret. The soon-to-be-former Chairman of the House Banking Committee, Henry Gonzales, has spoken on record repeatedly about how the Fed at one point says it does not have certain requested records, and then it is found through investigation that it in fact does have those records, or at least used to. It would appear that the Fed Chairman can say anything he wants to Congress, and they’ll have to accept what he says, because verification of what he says is not always possible.


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From: Marcel Bendshadler mailto: KC7AQK@worldnet.att.net 
To: Attention: Citizen's Rights Task Force Members
mailto: KC7AQK@worldnet.att.net 
Sent: Thursday, December 05, 2002 07:22
Subject: Hartford files in pdf format

Attached are two files that Hartford has produced in connection with his
case. The first is the Objections to the proposed Jury Instructions.
It is no surprise after the "Motion in Limine" (see earlier message)
that this was rejected by Jones (the guy pretending to be a Judge) outright.

The next is the Public Notice that Hartford has produced. He is not
using this yet, but I expect him to read the whole thing to the Jury,
even if Jones tries to stop him.

I wish the file sizes where smaller, but I wanted you to have these in
PDF so that you can see them exactly the way Hartford has prepared
them... I could have scanned them in, done an OCR conversion, and then
sent them to you in .RTF format, but then someone could "alter" the file
and send it out again as if it was Harford's, and you don't want that!

Marcel Roy Bendshadler
Constitutional Counsellor

Two files that Hartford has produced in connection with his
case. The first is the Objections to the proposed Jury Instructions.

Please freely distribute contents of this site!

APFN/Ken Vardon
6630 West Cactus Rd. #B104-760
Glendale, Arizona 85304

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